Abstract

Angularly selective filters can increase the efficiency of radiatively limited solar cells. A restriction of the acceptance angle is linked to the kind of utilizable solar spectrum (global or direct radiation). This has to be considered when calculating the potential enhancement of both the efficiency and the power output. In this paper, different concepts to realize angularly selective filters are compared regarding their limits for efficiency and power output per unit area. First experimental results of a promising system based on a thin-film filter as the angularly selective element are given to demonstrate the practical relevance of such systems.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  7. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
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  11. A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.
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  14. V. Badescu, “Spectrally and angularly selective photothermal and photovoltaic converters under one-sun illumination,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(13), 2166–2172 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Markvart, “Thermodynamics of losses in photovoltaic conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064102 (2007).
  16. S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. D. Kosten and H. A. Atwater, “Limiting acceptance angle to maximize effciency in solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8124, 812404 (2011).
  20. E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
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  24. O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).
  25. A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

M. A. Green, “Radiative efficiency of state-of-the-art photovoltaic cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 472–476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Miller, E. Yablonovitch, and S. R. Kurtz, “Strong internal and external luminescence as solar cells approach the Shockley-Queisser limit,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 303–311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

E. D. Kosten and H. A. Atwater, “Limiting acceptance angle to maximize effciency in solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8124, 812404 (2011).

2010

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Angular confinement and concentration in photovoltaic converters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(8), 1393–1398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Markvart, “Solar cell as a heat engine: energy-entropy analysis of photovoltaic conversion,” Phys. Status Solidi A. 205(12), 2752–2756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Markvart, “Thermodynamics of losses in photovoltaic conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064102 (2007).

2005

V. Badescu, “Spectrally and angularly selective photothermal and photovoltaic converters under one-sun illumination,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(13), 2166–2172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Martí, J. L. Balenzategui, and R. F. Reyna, “Photon recycling and Shockley's diode equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(8), 4067–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. L. Araújo and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33(2), 213–240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. E. Parrott, “Radiative recombination and photon recycling in photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 30(3), 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. G. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1961

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. M.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Araújo, G. L.

G. L. Araújo and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33(2), 213–240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Kosten and H. A. Atwater, “Limiting acceptance angle to maximize effciency in solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8124, 812404 (2011).

Atwater, J. H.

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Badescu, V.

V. Badescu, “Spectrally and angularly selective photothermal and photovoltaic converters under one-sun illumination,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(13), 2166–2172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balenzategui, J. L.

A. Martí, J. L. Balenzategui, and R. F. Reyna, “Photon recycling and Shockley's diode equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(8), 4067–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bauhuis, G. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baur, C.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Bett, A. W.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Blaesi, B.

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Bläsi, B.

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Angular confinement and concentration in photovoltaic converters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(8), 1393–1398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, B. G.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. G. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. G. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dimroth, F.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuermann, D.

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Angular confinement and concentration in photovoltaic converters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(8), 1393–1398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. M.

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Radiative efficiency of state-of-the-art photovoltaic cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 472–476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haverkamp, E. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hoehn, O.

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Hoffmann, A.

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Höhn, O.

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

Huijben, J. C. C. M.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katz, E. A.

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kayes, B. M.

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirchartz, T.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosten, E. D.

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Kosten and H. A. Atwater, “Limiting acceptance angle to maximize effciency in solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8124, 812404 (2011).

Kurtz, S. R.

O. D. Miller, E. Yablonovitch, and S. R. Kurtz, “Strong internal and external luminescence as solar cells approach the Shockley-Queisser limit,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 303–311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lange, G.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Lederer, F.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Markvart, T.

T. Markvart, “Solar cell as a heat engine: energy-entropy analysis of photovoltaic conversion,” Phys. Status Solidi A. 205(12), 2752–2756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Markvart, “Thermodynamics of losses in photovoltaic conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064102 (2007).

Martí, A.

A. Martí, J. L. Balenzategui, and R. F. Reyna, “Photon recycling and Shockley's diode equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(8), 4067–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Araújo and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33(2), 213–240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meusel, M.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Miller, O. D.

O. D. Miller, E. Yablonovitch, and S. R. Kurtz, “Strong internal and external luminescence as solar cells approach the Shockley-Queisser limit,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 303–311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mulder, P.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parrott, J. E.

J. E. Parrott, “Radiative recombination and photon recycling in photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 30(3), 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, J.

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Angular confinement and concentration in photovoltaic converters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(8), 1393–1398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Polman, A.

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reyna, R. F.

A. Martí, J. L. Balenzategui, and R. F. Reyna, “Photon recycling and Shockley's diode equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(8), 4067–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, V.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Sadchikov, N.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Schermer, J. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Siefer, G.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Tiedje, T.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. G. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, C.

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Rugate filter for light-trapping in solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9332–9343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Üpping, J.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Riesen, S.

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

O. D. Miller, E. Yablonovitch, and S. R. Kurtz, “Strong internal and external luminescence as solar cells approach the Shockley-Queisser limit,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 303–311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. G. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zilk, M.

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Markvart, “Thermodynamics of losses in photovoltaic conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064102 (2007).

Energy Environ. Sci.

A. Braun, E. A. Katz, D. Feuermann, B. M. Kayes, and J. M. Gordon, “Photovoltaic performance enhancement by external recycling of photon emission,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(5), 1499–1503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Dev.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. G. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovolt.

O. D. Miller, E. Yablonovitch, and S. R. Kurtz, “Strong internal and external luminescence as solar cells approach the Shockley-Queisser limit,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 303–311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí, J. L. Balenzategui, and R. F. Reyna, “Photon recycling and Shockley's diode equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(8), 4067–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

V. Badescu, “Spectrally and angularly selective photothermal and photovoltaic converters under one-sun illumination,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(13), 2166–2172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl.

E. D. Kosten, J. H. Atwater, J. Parsons, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(1), e45 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys Status Solidi A

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys Status Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A.

T. Markvart, “Solar cell as a heat engine: energy-entropy analysis of photovoltaic conversion,” Phys. Status Solidi A. 205(12), 2752–2756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

E. D. Kosten and H. A. Atwater, “Limiting acceptance angle to maximize effciency in solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8124, 812404 (2011).

O. Höhn, M. Peters, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Bläsi, “Optimization of angularly selective photonic filters for concentrator photovoltaic,” Proc. SPIE 8438, 84380A (2012).

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Radiative efficiency of state-of-the-art photovoltaic cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 472–476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

J. E. Parrott, “Radiative recombination and photon recycling in photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 30(3), 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Angular confinement and concentration in photovoltaic converters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(8), 1393–1398 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Araújo and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33(2), 213–240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, T. Kirchartz, and B. Bläsi, “The photonic light trap–Improved light trapping in solar cells by angularly selective filters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(10), 1721–1727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance: Air Mass 1.5, ASTM G-173-3,” available at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ (2012).

O. Hoehn, M. Peters, M. Zilk, C. Ulbrich, A. Hoffmann, U. T. Schwarz, and B. Blaesi, “Combination of angular selective photonic structure and concentrating solar cell system,” in Proc. of the 27th EUPVSEC (2012).

A. W. Bett, C. Baur, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, M. Meusel, S. Van Riesen, G. Siefer, V. M. Andreev, V. Rumyantsev, and N. Sadchikov, “FLATCON modules: technology and characterisation,” in Proc. of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (2003), pp. 634–637.

E. Yablonovitch, O. D. Miller, and S. R. Kurtz, “The opto-electronic physics that broke the efficiency limit in solar cells,” in IEEE Phot. Spec. Conf. (2012), pp. 1556–1559.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schemes of the three systems (From left: (i), (ii) and (iii)).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Short circuit current densities of the three systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Open circuit voltages of the three systems.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Efficiencies of the three systems. The ellipsis mark the point of maximal efficiency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power output per unit area of the three systems. The ellipsis mark the point of maximal power output.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left (a): Angular dependent Fourier spectrometer measurement of the filter reflectance. Right (b): Measurement of the difference in voltage of the system with and without filter.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ ext = k B ln( ε out ε in ).
d j cell (λ,V)= (2c sin 2 θ ext (λ)) λ 4 dλ exp((hc/λqV)/( k B T))1 .

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