Abstract

The operating voltage, light output power, and efficiency droops of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were improved by introducing Mg-doped AlGaN/InGaN superlattice (SL) electron blocking layer (EBL). The thicker InGaN layers of AlGaN/InGaN SL EBL could have a larger effective electron potential height and lower effective hole potential height than that of AlGaN EBL. This thicker InGaN layer could prevent electron leakage into the p-region of LEDs and improve hole injection efficiency to achieve a higher light output power and less efficiency droops with the injection current. The low lateral resistivity of Mg-doped AlGaN/InGaN SL would have superior current spreading at high current injection.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
  2. T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Biser, J.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y.

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-A.

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.-M.

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. J.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. H.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, K.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, G. H.

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Graff, J. W.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, H. V.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M.

P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kameshima, M.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-T.

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.-T.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. P.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. C.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-B.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. R.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lioub, B.-T.

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morita, D.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Murazaki, Y.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Naitou, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Narukawa, Y.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noh, D. Y.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pang, W.

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. F.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. H.

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H. W.

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shioji, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sonobe, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Yamamoto, S.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yanamoto, T.

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. W.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y. A.

Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, S. W.

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. L.

Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S. C. Huang, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3681–3683 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Y. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhu, Y. A. Yin, and J. Ma, “Performance enhancement of near-UV light-emitting diodes with an InAlN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(7), 994–996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Chen, G. H. Fan, W. Pang, S. W. Zheng, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Improvement of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN/GaN superlattice last quantum barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2218–2220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Y. P. Lan, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, M. H. Shih, P.-T. Lee, and H.-C. Kuo, “Advantages of blue LEDs with graded-composition AlGaN/GaN superlattice EBL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2062–2065 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Displ. Technol. (2)

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Displ. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, H. W. Shim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices with a graded Al composition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(10), 105101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

T. Mukai, S. Nagahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Naitou, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F.-M. Chen, B.-T. Lioub, Y.-A. Chang, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-T. Kuo, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical analysis of using superlattice-AlGaN/InGaN as electron blocking layer in green InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8625, 862526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

I–V characteristics and dynamic resistances of all LEDs. The error bar shows the distribution of the data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curves of measured output power and EQE with respect to the injection current density for all LEDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electrostatic fields of (a) LED I, (b) LED II, (c) LED III, and (d) LED IV at 30 A/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy band diagrams of (a) LED I, (b) LED II, (c) LED III, and (d) LED IV at 30 A/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Electron and (b) hole concentration distributions within the active regions of these four LEDs at 30 A/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electron current density profiles of these four LEDs at 30 A/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field emission intensity images of LEDs I, II, and IV (a)–(c) at 30 A/cm2 and (d)–(f) at 100 A/cm2. (g) Light emission intensity profiles of LEDs along the dashed lines at 100 A/cm2.

Equations (1)

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d AlGaN E AlGaN + d InGaN E InGaN =0,

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