Abstract

The development of optimal backside reflectors (BSRs) is crucial for future low cost and high efficiency silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. In this work, nanostructured polymer substrates with aluminum coatings intended as BSRs were produced by positive and negative nanoimprint lithography (NIL) techniques, and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was deposited hereon as absorbing layers. The relationship between optical properties and geometry of front textures was studied by combining experimental reflectance spectra and theoretical simulations. It was found that a significant height variation on front textures plays a critical role for light-trapping enhancement in solar cell applications. As a part of sample preparation, a transfer NIL process was developed to overcome the problem of low heat deflection temperature of polymer substrates during solar cell fabrication.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Tsao, C. Fisker, and T. G. Pedersen, “Optical absorption of amorphous silicon on anodized aluminum substrates for solar cell applications,” Opt. Commun. 315, 17–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (6)

2012 (4)

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yuan, F. Chen, C. Zheng, J. Liu, and N. Alemu, “Parasitic absorption effect of metal nanoparticles in the dye-sensitized solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(7), 1376–1379 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Fagan, B. H. Kim, and D. G. Yao, “A novel process for continuous thermal embossing of large-area nanopatterns onto polymer films,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 28(4), 246–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

T. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint lithography tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin and J. D. Phillips, “Optimization of random diffraction gratings in thin-film solar cells using genetic algorithms,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1689–1696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, and A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Su, P. C. Taylor, G. Ganguly, and D. E. Carlson, “Direct role of hydrogen in the Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 015502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. Rech and H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 155–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

1992 (1)

Ahn, S.

Ahn, S. H.

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alemu, N.

L. Yuan, F. Chen, C. Zheng, J. Liu, and N. Alemu, “Parasitic absorption effect of metal nanoparticles in the dye-sensitized solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(7), 1376–1379 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. T. L.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anna Selvan, J. A.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Atwater, H. A.

Ballif, C.

C. Pahud, O. Isabella, A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, M. Zeman, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic silicon solar cells: impact of material quality and geometry,” Opt. Express 21(S5), A786–A797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boccard, M.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bugnon, G.

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calderone, C.

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cantoni, M.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, D. E.

T. Su, P. C. Taylor, G. Ganguly, and D. E. Carlson, “Direct role of hydrogen in the Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 015502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

L. Yuan, F. Chen, C. Zheng, J. Liu, and N. Alemu, “Parasitic absorption effect of metal nanoparticles in the dye-sensitized solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(7), 1376–1379 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. B.

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint lithography tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. Z.

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, and A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Couty, P.

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuony, P.

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Bruijn, H. E.

Denizot, C.

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
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C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
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C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
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C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
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J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

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S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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Escarré, J.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
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C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
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M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
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C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
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M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
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A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
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H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
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M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
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A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
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C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
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C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
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K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
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J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Hosono, H.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
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C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
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H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
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S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, and A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
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J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Khaleque, T.

Kim, B. H.

M. D. Fagan, B. H. Kim, and D. G. Yao, “A novel process for continuous thermal embossing of large-area nanopatterns onto polymer films,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 28(4), 246–256 (2009).
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J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint lithography tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
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Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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Kim, Y.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
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M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
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Konagai, M.

Kondo, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
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Kroll, U.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Kwon, H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
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A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
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J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint lithography tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
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Lemiti, M.

Leterrier, Y.

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
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Lin, A.

A. Lin and J. D. Phillips, “Optimization of random diffraction gratings in thin-film solar cells using genetic algorithms,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1689–1696 (2008).
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A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
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M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
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Magnusson, R.

Månson, J. A. E.

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
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J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Naqavi, A.

Nomura, K.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
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K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
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Pahud, C.

Palanchoke, U.

Park, H.-G.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
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Park, S. Y.

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint lithography tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
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Pedersen, T. G.

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J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Phillips, J. D.

A. Lin and J. D. Phillips, “Optimization of random diffraction gratings in thin-film solar cells using genetic algorithms,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1689–1696 (2008).
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S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
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J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

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H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
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Schropp, R. E. I.

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Shklover, V.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Sichanugrist, P.

Skovsen, E.

Smets, A. H. M.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, T.

T. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

Stiebig, H.

Su, T.

T. Su, P. C. Taylor, G. Ganguly, and D. E. Carlson, “Direct role of hydrogen in the Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 015502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svavarsson, H. G.

Takagi, A.

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, H.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, P. C.

T. Su, P. C. Taylor, G. Ganguly, and D. E. Carlson, “Direct role of hydrogen in the Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 015502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.

T. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teuscher, R.

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Tsao, C. Fisker, and T. G. Pedersen, “Optical absorption of amorphous silicon on anodized aluminum substrates for solar cell applications,” Opt. Commun. 315, 17–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Tsao, T. Søndergaard, E. Skovsen, L. Gurevich, K. Pedersen, and T. G. Pedersen, “Pore size dependence of diffuse light scattering from anodized aluminum solar cell backside reflectors,” Opt. Express 21(S1), A84–A95 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, C.-W.

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ufert, K.-D.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

Wada, K.

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, and A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H.

B. Rech and H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 155–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

Wiesendanger, S.

Wu, M. L.

Yao, D. G.

M. D. Fagan, B. H. Kim, and D. G. Yao, “A novel process for continuous thermal embossing of large-area nanopatterns onto polymer films,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 28(4), 246–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yasumori, A.

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, and A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

L. Yuan, F. Chen, C. Zheng, J. Liu, and N. Alemu, “Parasitic absorption effect of metal nanoparticles in the dye-sensitized solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(7), 1376–1379 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

C. Pahud, O. Isabella, A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, M. Zeman, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic silicon solar cells: impact of material quality and geometry,” Opt. Express 21(S5), A786–A797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

L. Yuan, F. Chen, C. Zheng, J. Liu, and N. Alemu, “Parasitic absorption effect of metal nanoparticles in the dye-sensitized solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(7), 1376–1379 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.-K.

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, Y.

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (3)

C. Battaglia, C. M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for Plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Polym. Technol. (1)

M. D. Fagan, B. H. Kim, and D. G. Yao, “A novel process for continuous thermal embossing of large-area nanopatterns onto polymer films,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 28(4), 246–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, D. Dominé, P. Cuony, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, C. Denizot, M. Despeisse, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Efficient light management scheme for thin film silicon solar cells via transparent random nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

B. Rech and H. Wagner, “Potential of amorphous silicon for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 155–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells for flexible photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, and A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

A. S. Lin, Y.-K. Zhong, S.-M. Fu, C.-W. Tseng, S.-Y. Lai, and W.-M. Lai, “Lithographically fabricable, optimized three-dimensional solar cell random structure,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint lithography tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, F.-J. Haug, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors,” Nature 432(7016), 488–492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y.-C. Tsao, C. Fisker, and T. G. Pedersen, “Optical absorption of amorphous silicon on anodized aluminum substrates for solar cell applications,” Opt. Commun. 315, 17–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

C. Fisker and T. G. Pedersen, “Optimization of imprintable nanostructured a-Si solar cells: FDTD study,” Opt. Express 21(S2), A208–A220 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Tsao, T. Søndergaard, E. Skovsen, L. Gurevich, K. Pedersen, and T. G. Pedersen, “Pore size dependence of diffuse light scattering from anodized aluminum solar cell backside reflectors,” Opt. Express 21(S1), A84–A95 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pahud, O. Isabella, A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, M. Zeman, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Plasmonic silicon solar cells: impact of material quality and geometry,” Opt. Express 21(S5), A786–A797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Khaleque, H. G. Svavarsson, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication of resonant patterns using thermal nano-imprint lithography for thin-film photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 21(S4), A631–A641 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, S. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Roca I Cabarrocas, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A293–A299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Jovanov, U. Palanchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, J. Hüpkes, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, S. Wiesendanger, C. Rockstuhl, and D. Knipp, “Light trapping in periodically textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using realistic interface morphologies,” Opt. Express 21(S4), A595–A606 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Su, P. C. Taylor, G. Ganguly, and D. E. Carlson, “Direct role of hydrogen in the Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 015502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. Yuan, F. Chen, C. Zheng, J. Liu, and N. Alemu, “Parasitic absorption effect of metal nanoparticles in the dye-sensitized solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(7), 1376–1379 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

A. Lin and J. D. Phillips, “Optimization of random diffraction gratings in thin-film solar cells using genetic algorithms,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1689–1696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hof, D. Fischer, H. Keppner, R. Flückiger, A. Shah, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the “micromorph” concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 35–44 (1997).

M. A. González Lazo, R. Teuscher, Y. Leterrier, J. A. E. Månson, C. Calderone, A. Hessler-Wyser, P. Couty, Y. Ziegler, and D. Fischer, “UV-nanoimprint lithography and large area roll-to-roll texturization with hyperbranched polymer nanocomposites for light-trapping applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 147–156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Lumerical FDTD Solutions ( http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ ).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

S. A. Sopra, Materials data ( http://www.sspectra.com/sopra.html ).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic process flows of the negative, positive and transfer NIL processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images with a tilt angle of 45þ of all negative and positive imprints on PMMA surfaces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2D AFM topography of a 200 nm a-Si:H film on T(PH) (dashed lines) and N(PH) (solid lines) showing (a) short- and (b) long-axis cross-section profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images with tilt angles of 0þ and 45þ of (a-h) the N(PH) and (i-p) the P(PH) BSRs with 0 – 300 nm a-Si:H films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total (a-c) and diffuse (d-f) reflectance spectra of all the positive and negative NIL BSRs with 100 – 300nm a-Si:H films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Average absorption between 300 – 800 nm of all replicated BSRs as a function of the a-Si:H layer thickness (b) Integrated quantum efficiency (IQE) of O(PH), P(PH), N(PH) and T(PH) samples under AM1.5G as a function of a-Si:H layer thickness. The red and blue dashed arrows illustrate the increase and the decrease of the IQE, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AFM cross-sections of center dimples on the front surface of (a) O(PH) and (b) P(PH) with 100 – 300 nm a-Si:H coating. (c) Ratio of height to FWHM of O(PH) and P(PH) as a function of the a-Si:H layer thickness.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FDTD simulations of periodic hexagonal cell structures based on the AFM cross-section scans of the four different BSRs, (a) P(PH), (b) O(PH), (c) T(PH) and (d) N(PH), with the 200 nm a-Si:H coating. The rectangular columns above the cross-sections profiles are the photon densities of the reflected light.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IQE=  λ 1 λ 2 λ  I sun ( λ ) A tot ( λ )RQE( λ )dλ λ 1 λ 2 λ  I sun ( λ )dλ ,
ϕ p h ( r ) = λ 1 λ 2 λ h c | E ( r ) / E 0 | 2 I s u n d λ ,  

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