Abstract

Polarization-reversed electron-blocking structure, which had negative polarization charges localized at the interface between the last quantum barrier (LQB) and electron-blocking layer (EBL), was demonstrated to remarkably improve the light-emitting efficiency of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) numerically and experimentally. The improvement was attributed to the enhanced electron-blocking effectiveness by the elevated conduction band nearby the LQB/EBL interface. Nevertheless, the efficiency droop was not mitigated because the decrease of electron-leakage was accompanied by the increase of Auger recombination.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-C. Tsai, “Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3285–3287 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
  10. A. J. Ghazai, S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Quaternary ultraviolet AlInGaN MQW laser diode performance using quaternary AlInGaN electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9245–9254 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, X. L. Hu, F. Jiang, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Efficient hole transport in asymmetric coupled InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Sensitivity analysis of electron leakage in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131103 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. X. Cao, Y. Yang, and H. Guo, “On the origin of efficiency roll-off in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Sensitivity analysis of electron leakage in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ghazai, S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Quaternary ultraviolet AlInGaN MQW laser diode performance using quaternary AlInGaN electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9245–9254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-C. Tsai, “Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3285–3287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, X. L. Hu, F. Jiang, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Efficient hole transport in asymmetric coupled InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Cao, Y. Yang, and H. Guo, “On the origin of efficiency roll-off in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

2007

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abu Hassan, H.

Avrutin, V.

V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. E.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, X. L. Hu, F. Jiang, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Efficient hole transport in asymmetric coupled InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

X. Cao, Y. Yang, and H. Guo, “On the origin of efficiency roll-off in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y.

Chang, S. J.

R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. T.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. W.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. H.

R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. R.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N.

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghazai, A. J.

Guo, H.

X. Cao, Y. Yang, and H. Guo, “On the origin of efficiency roll-off in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hafiz, S. A.

V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, Z.

Hu, X. L.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, X. L. Hu, F. Jiang, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Efficient hole transport in asymmetric coupled InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iza, M.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, X. L. Hu, F. Jiang, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Efficient hole transport in asymmetric coupled InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

Kim, M.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M.

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

Lee, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

Li, J.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. M. S.

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Sensitivity analysis of electron leakage in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-B.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. M.

R. M. Lin, S. F. Yu, S. J. Chang, T. H. Chiang, S. P. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “Inserting a p-InGaN layer before the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer suppresses efficiency droop in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, Z.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, M.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matulionis, A.

V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mulholland, G.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozgür, Ü.

V. Avrutin, S. A. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Ozgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: Efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Sensitivity analysis of electron leakage in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

Schubert, E. F.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H. W.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thahab, S. M.

Tsai, M.-C.

Vampola, K. J.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, X. L. Hu, F. Jiang, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Efficient hole transport in asymmetric coupled InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. Shen, G. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

N. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Wei, L. Zhang, X. Wei, X. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Effect of the graded electron blocking layer on the emission properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, C. S.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, and L. W. Cheng, “Droop improvement in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with indium graded last barrier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(23), 233501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

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C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
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S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
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D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, M. Ma, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M. H. Kim, H. W. Shim, and Y. S. Kim, “GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201112 (2013).
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Other

APSYS Device Simulator, Software Package, Crosslight Software, Inc., Canada.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated (a) band diagrams and (b) electron density distribution of one GaN-based blue LED with positive, zero and negative LQB/EBL interface polarization charges (under injection current of 1 A). The dashed lines mark the quasi Fermi levels. (c) Electron density distribution in MQW region (the position on horizontal axis is shifted for better observation).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated band diagrams of the four GaN-based blue LEDs with different LQB/EBL collocations (under injection current of 1 A). The dashed lines mark the quasi Fermi levels. The effective potential height for electrons and holes are marked.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental (a) forward I-V characteristics, (b) reverse I-V characteristics, (c) EL spectra under 350 mA, and (d) L-I of the four GaN-based blue LEDs with different LQB/EBL collocations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental EQE (normalized) versus injection current of the four GaN-based blue LEDs with different LQB/EBL collocations, and (b) Simulated ratio of electron-leakage and Auger loss versus injection current for sample A and sample C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of the brief properties of the four GaN-based blue LEDs with different LQB/EBL collocations.

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