Abstract

The influence of carrier localization on photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated emission is studied in AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different strength of carrier localization. We observe that carrier delocalization at low temperatures predominantly enhances the nonradiative recombination and causes the droop, while the main effect of the delocalization at elevated temperatures is enhancement of PL efficiency due to increasing contribution of bimolecular recombination of free carriers. When the carrier thermal energy exceeds the dispersion of the potential fluctuations causing the carrier localization, the droop is caused by stimulated carrier recombination.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. I. Bochkareva, Y. T. Rebane, and Y. G. Shreter, “Efficiency droop and incomplete carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “"Blue” temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

N. I. Bochkareva, Y. T. Rebane, and Y. G. Shreter, “Efficiency droop and incomplete carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “"Blue” temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asatsuma, T.

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Averbeck, R.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, T. J.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belyaev, K. G.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, F.

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, Y. T. Rebane, and Y. G. Shreter, “Efficiency droop and incomplete carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cargill, G. S.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christen, J.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C. J.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danilchyk, A. V.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “"Blue” temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franssen, G.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, A.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garett, G. A.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gfug, U.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Godfrey, M. J.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godlewski, M.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hammersley, S.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heuken, M.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holst, J.

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanonv, S. V.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, S. V.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. Yu.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jmerik, V. N.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jurkevicius, J.

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Juršenas, S.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaschner, A.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazlauskas, K.

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kop’ev, P. S.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopev, P. S.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuokštis, E.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “"Blue” temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lutsenko, E. V.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McAleese, C.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miasojedovas, S.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mickevicius, J.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, T.

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mizerov, A. M.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mizerov, A. N.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, Y.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforov, A. Yu.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. A.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Omiya, H.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “"Blue” temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pecora, E. F.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “"Blue” temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plumlee, C.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pobedinskas, P.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y. T.

N. I. Bochkareva, Y. T. Rebane, and Y. G. Shreter, “Efficiency droop and incomplete carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Riechert, H.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, T.

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rudloff, D.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rzheutskii, N. V.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sampath, A. V.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarney, W. L.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Satake, A.

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schon, O.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwambera, M.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

N. I. Bochkareva, Y. T. Rebane, and Y. G. Shreter, “Efficiency droop and incomplete carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shubina, T. V.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siekacz, M.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sitnikova, A. A.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skierbiszewski, C.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strassburg, M.

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamulaitis, G.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tarasuk, N. P.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, C.

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toropov, A. A.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watson-Parris, D.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, G. P.

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yagovkina, M. A.

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Photoluminescence efficiency droop and stimulated recombination in GaN epilayers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25195–25200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

N. I. Bochkareva, Y. T. Rebane, and Y. G. Shreter, “Efficiency droop and incomplete carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(19), 191101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, L. Wang, W. Zhao, Z. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Understanding efficiency droop effect in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes with different degree of carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, L. Su, J. Zhang, T. Wei, and Z. Chen, “Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 252103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Correlation between carrier localization and efficiency droop in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission due to localized and delocalized carriers in Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.49Ga0.51N quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041912 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Yu. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Jmerik, A. M. Mizerov, A. A. Sitnikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanonv, E. V. Lutsenko, N. P. Tarasuk, N. V. Rzheutskii, and G. P. Yablonskii, “Low-threshold 303 nm lasing in AlGaN-based multiple-quantum well structures with an asymmetric waveguide grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141112 (2010).
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J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Bell, S. Srinivasan, C. Plumlee, H. Omiya, F. A. Ponce, J. Christen, S. Tanaka, A. Fujioka, and Y. Nakagawa, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670–4674 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Satake, Y. Masumoto, T. Miyajima, T. Asatsuma, and M. Ikeda, “Two-dimensional exciton dynamics and gain formation processes in InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16660–16666 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

V. N. Jmerik, A. N. Mizerov, T. V. Shubina, A. A. Toropov, K. G. Belyaev, A. A. Sitnikova, M. A. Yagovkina, P. S. Kopev, E. V. Lutsenko, A. V. Danilchyk, N. V. Rzheutskii, G. P. Yablonskii, B. Monemar, and S. V. Ivanov, “Optically pumped lasing at 300.4 nm in AlGaN MQW structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(6), 1313–1317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Holst, A. Kaschner, U. Gfug, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, F. Bertram, T. Riemann, D. Rudloff, P. Fischer, J. Christen, R. Averbeck, H. Riechert, M. Heuken, M. Schwambera, and O. Schon, “Comparison of the mechanism of optical amplification in InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 327–332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

A. Žukauskas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, P. Pobedinskas, S. Juršėnas, S. Miasojedovas, V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, G. Franssen, P. Perlin, T. Suski, and I. Grzegory, “Role of band potential roughness on the luminescence properties of InGaN quantum wells grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243(7), 1614–1618 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, J. Holst, J. Christen, T. Riemann, F. Bertram, and P. Fischer, “The origin of the PL photoluminescence Stokes shift in ternary group-III nitrides: field effects and localization,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0(6), 1835–1845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Edge PL spectra of AlGaN MQWs samples A1 (a) and C1 (b) measured at 20 K temperature under several excitation power densities below and above the threshold for stimulated emission. The threshold was equal to 170 kW/cm2 and 970 kW/cm2 for samples A1 and C1, respectively. The spectra were normalized and shifted for clarity. The vertical line indicates the peak positions of spontaneous luminescence bands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependences of PL band peak position shift relative to the position at 8 K in AlGaN MQWs (points) for the samples listed in Table 1. Solid lines show the best fit using a simple model of carrier (exciton) hopping through localized states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized PL efficiency dependences on excitation power density in AlGaN MQWs with different localization strengths (indicated) at 300 K (a) and 8 K (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio of thresholds for stimulated emission and droop onset as a function of the ratio of thermal energy to dispersion of potential fluctuations for 6 different samples at various temperatures. The solid line indicates the ratio between stimulated emission threshold and droop onset equal to 1.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The structure details of the samples under study.

Equations (1)

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E peak ( T )= E g ( 0 ) α T 2 β+T σ 2 k B T .

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