Abstract

This paper describes a promising approach toward preparing effective electrical and optical interconnections for tandem organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The first subcell featured a semi-transparent electrode, which allowed a portion of the solar irradiation to pass through and to enter the second subcell exhibiting complementary absorption behavior. The resulting multi-junction OPV had multiple contacts such that the subcells could be easily connected either in series or in parallel. More importantly, we used UV-curable epoxy to “mechanically” stack the two subcells and to eliminate the air gap between them, thereby reducing the optical loss induced by mismatches of refractive indices. Therefore, an improved power conversion efficiency of approximately 6.5% has been achieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  4. A. De Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
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  5. D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
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  6. G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
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  7. H. L. Yip and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Recent advances in solution-processed interfacial materials for efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(3), 5994–6011 (2012).
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  8. J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
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  10. A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
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  11. J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, M. K. Chuang, and K. S. Tan, “Near-infrared laser-driven polymer photovoltaic devices and their biomedical applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3374–3378 (2011).
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  12. G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
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  13. S. Sista, X. Hong, L. M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer photovoltaic cells—current status, challenges and future outlook,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(5), 1606–1620 (2011).
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  14. L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. W. C. Chen, S. C. Chien, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Stacked structures for assembling multiple organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072301 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. F. Bailey-Salzman, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. J. He, H. Y. Chen, J. H. Hou, and Y. F. Li, “Indene-C60 bisadduct: a new acceptor for high-performance polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(4), 1377–1382 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. C. Chen, H. C. Tseng, and C. J. Ko, “Solvent mixtures for improving device efficiency of polymer photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103316 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Yao, H. Y. Chen, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Low voltage and fast speed all-polymeric optocouplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. H. Chou, J. K. Chuang, and F. C. Chen, “High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2244 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chou, J. K. Chuang, and F. C. Chen, “High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2244 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

W. C. Chen, S. C. Chien, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Stacked structures for assembling multiple organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Yip and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Recent advances in solution-processed interfacial materials for efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(3), 5994–6011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, M. K. Chuang, and K. S. Tan, “Near-infrared laser-driven polymer photovoltaic devices and their biomedical applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3374–3378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sista, X. Hong, L. M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer photovoltaic cells—current status, challenges and future outlook,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(5), 1606–1620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen and C. H. Lin, “Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(2), 025104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. He, H. Y. Chen, J. H. Hou, and Y. F. Li, “Indene-C60 bisadduct: a new acceptor for high-performance polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(4), 1377–1382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Brown and J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(4), 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Chen, H. C. Tseng, and C. J. Ko, “Solvent mixtures for improving device efficiency of polymer photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103316 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, H. Y. Chen, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Low voltage and fast speed all-polymeric optocouplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Bailey-Salzman, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. De Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p‐n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alsema, E. A.

A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, L. M.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bailey-Salzman, R. F.

R. F. Bailey-Salzman, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, C.

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedell, S. W.

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergqvist, J.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blok, K.

A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, G. F.

G. F. Brown and J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(4), 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. C.

W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chou, J. K. Chuang, and F. C. Chen, “High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2244 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Chen, S. C. Chien, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Stacked structures for assembling multiple organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, M. K. Chuang, and K. S. Tan, “Near-infrared laser-driven polymer photovoltaic devices and their biomedical applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3374–3378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Chen and C. H. Lin, “Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(2), 025104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen, H. C. Tseng, and C. J. Ko, “Solvent mixtures for improving device efficiency of polymer photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103316 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. J. He, H. Y. Chen, J. H. Hou, and Y. F. Li, “Indene-C60 bisadduct: a new acceptor for high-performance polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(4), 1377–1382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, H. Y. Chen, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Low voltage and fast speed all-polymeric optocouplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. M.

S. Sista, X. Hong, L. M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer photovoltaic cells—current status, challenges and future outlook,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(5), 1606–1620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. C.

W. C. Chen, S. C. Chien, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Stacked structures for assembling multiple organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F. C.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, S. C.

W. C. Chen, S. C. Chien, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Stacked structures for assembling multiple organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. H.

W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chou, J. K. Chuang, and F. C. Chen, “High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2244 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C. W.

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A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
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J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
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J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
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M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
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G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
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J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
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D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
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M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
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M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(1), 12–20 (2012).
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L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
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L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. J. He, H. Y. Chen, J. H. Hou, and Y. F. Li, “Indene-C60 bisadduct: a new acceptor for high-performance polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(4), 1377–1382 (2010).
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J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
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D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
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M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(1), 12–20 (2012).
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M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
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L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
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J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
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W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
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J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
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L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
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M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
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J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
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J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
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F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
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A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauro, P.

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. K.

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lei, B.

A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. F.

L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. He, H. Y. Chen, J. H. Hou, and Y. F. Li, “Indene-C60 bisadduct: a new acceptor for high-performance polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(4), 1377–1382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

F. C. Chen and C. H. Lin, “Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(2), 025104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. T.

W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. L.

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mayberry, C.

A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriarty, T.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murase, S.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, K.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ott, J. A.

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Patel, M. K.

A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p‐n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

R. F. Bailey-Salzman, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riede, M.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roes, A. L.

A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sadana, D. K.

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shahrjerdi, D.

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p‐n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shyue, J. J.

M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sista, S.

S. Sista, X. Hong, L. M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer photovoltaic cells—current status, challenges and future outlook,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(5), 1606–1620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sundarraj, S.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. S.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, M. K. Chuang, and K. S. Tan, “Near-infrared laser-driven polymer photovoltaic devices and their biomedical applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3374–3378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Timmreck, R.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. H.

M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, H. C.

F. C. Chen, H. C. Tseng, and C. J. Ko, “Solvent mixtures for improving device efficiency of polymer photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103316 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uhrich, C.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vandewal, K.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waldauf, C.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, E.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. Y.

M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, A.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, J.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E. H. E.

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

G. F. Brown and J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(4), 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. L.

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, M. K. Chuang, and K. S. Tan, “Near-infrared laser-driven polymer photovoltaic devices and their biomedical applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3374–3378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, D.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sista, X. Hong, L. M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer photovoltaic cells—current status, challenges and future outlook,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(5), 1606–1620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, H. Y. Chen, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Low voltage and fast speed all-polymeric optocouplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, H. Y. Chen, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Low voltage and fast speed all-polymeric optocouplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yip, H. L.

H. L. Yip and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Recent advances in solution-processed interfacial materials for efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(3), 5994–6011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, J.

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. Q.

L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, R.

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, Y. S. Hsiao, F. C. Chien, P. Chen, C. H. Kuo, M. H. Huang, and C. S. Hsu, “Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(2), 959–967 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mat. (1)

Z. Tang, Z. George, Z. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K. Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L. M. Andersson, M. R. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganäs, “Semi-transparent tandem organic solar cells with 90% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mat. 2(12), 1467–1476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (4)

V. Shrotriya, G. Li, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(15), 2016–2023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, ““Solvent annealing” effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. Devine, C. Mayberry, B. Lei, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Origin of radiation-induced degradation in polymer solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(16), 2729–2736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction tandem solar cells-towards 15% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 579–583 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

L. J. Huo, S. Q. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Xu, Y. F. Li, and J. H. Hou, “Replacing alkoxy groups with alkythienyl groups: A fesible approach to improve the properties of photovoltaic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50(41), 9697–9702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

W. C. Chen, S. C. Chien, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Stacked structures for assembling multiple organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

V. Shrotriya, E. H. E. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Bailey-Salzman, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen, H. C. Tseng, and C. J. Ko, “Solvent mixtures for improving device efficiency of polymer photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103316 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, H. Y. Chen, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Low voltage and fast speed all-polymeric optocouplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Shahrjerdi, S. W. Bedell, C. Ebert, C. Bayram, B. Hekmatshoar, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, M. Gaynes, T. Gokmen, J. A. Ott, and D. K. Sadana, “High-efficiency thin-film InGaP/InGaAs/Ge tandem solar cells enabled by controlled spalling technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (3)

S. Sista, X. Hong, L. M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer photovoltaic cells—current status, challenges and future outlook,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(5), 1606–1620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wu, F. C. Chen, M. K. Chuang, and K. S. Tan, “Near-infrared laser-driven polymer photovoltaic devices and their biomedical applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3374–3378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Yip and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Recent advances in solution-processed interfacial materials for efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(3), 5994–6011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

J. K. Lee, W. L. Ma, C. J. Brabec, J. Yuen, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3619–3623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. He, H. Y. Chen, J. H. Hou, and Y. F. Li, “Indene-C60 bisadduct: a new acceptor for high-performance polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(4), 1377–1382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p‐n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

A. De Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chen and C. H. Lin, “Construction and characteristics of tandem organic solar cells featuring small molecule-based films on polymer-based subcells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(2), 025104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. F. Brown and J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(4), 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C. C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

A. L. Roes, E. A. Alsema, K. Blok, and M. K. Patel, “Ex-ante environmental and economic evaluation of polymer photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 372–393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(1), 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. H. Chou, J. K. Chuang, and F. C. Chen, “High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2244 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

F. C. Chen, C. J. Ko, J. L. Wu, and W. C. Chen, “Morphological study of P3HT:PCBM blend films prepared through solvent annealing for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2426–2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ibrahem, H. Y. Wei, M. H. Tsai, K. C. Ho, J. J. Shyue, and C. W. Chu, “Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles as interlayer materials for inverted organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 108, 156–163 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Lin, Y. T. Lin, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and C. S. Hsu, “Organic solar cells comprising multiple-device stacked structures exhibiting complementary absorption behavior,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 724–727 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of the device structure of the multi-junction OPVs. (b) Chemical structures of the materials (PBDTTT-C-T, P3HT, PC60BM and IC60BA) used in this work.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectra of the films of PBDTTT-C-T:PC60BM film (1:1.5, w/w) and the P3HT:IC60BA (1:1, w/w). (b) The EQE spectra of the two subcells in the tandem OPVs. The device structures of the front cell and the back cell device are ITO/ZnO(40nm)/PBDTTT-C-T:PC60BM (95 nm)/MoO3(3.5 nm)/Ag(15nm) and ITO/PEDOT:PSS(45nm)/P3HT:IC60BA (200 nm)/Ca(30nm)/Al(100nm), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmittance spectra of the front subcell and its semitransparent anode. Device structure: ITO/ZnO(40nm)/PBDTTT-C-T:PC60BM (95 nm)/MoO3(3.5 nm)/Ag(15nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

J-V curves of the front ST subcells, the rear subcells, and the tandem OPV connected either in series or in parallel measured under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm−2). (a) An air gap was present between the subcells; (b) a layer of UV curable epoxy was inserted between the subcells.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The EQE spectra of the rear subcells in the tandem OPVs before and after the air gap was filled. (b) The EQE spectra of the tandem cells connected in parallel before and after the air gap was filled.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Imitating the transmittances of the tandem cells in TracePro®. A 1 mm air gap existed between the front and rear subcells; the spectrum of the solar irradiance was set according to IEC 60904-9.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Photovoltaic parameters of individual subcells and tandem structures. An air gap existed between the subcells in the tandem cells.

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Table 2 Photovoltaic parameters of individual subcells and tandem structures. The air gap between the subcells was eliminated with UV-curable epoxy.

Equations (1)

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T= 4 n 1 n 2 ( n 1 + n 2 ) 2

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