Abstract

The aluminum and sliver multilayered nano-grating structure is fabricated by laser interference lithography and the intervals between nanoslits is filled with modified PEDOT:PSS. The grating structured transparent electrode functions as the anti-reflection layer which not only decreases the reflected light but also increases the absorption of the active layer. The performances of P3HT:PC61BM solar cells are studied experimentally and theoretically in detail. The field intensities of the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electrical (TE) waves distributed in the active layer are simulated by rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). The power conversion efficiency of the plasmonic ITO-free polymer solar cell can reach 3.64% which is higher than ITO based polymer solar cell with efficiency of 3.45%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235201 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. E. Petoukhoff, D. K. Vijapurapu, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Computational comparison of conventional and inverted organic photovoltaic performance parameters with varying metal electrode surface workfunction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 572–583 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).
  23. N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Steim, F. R. Kogler, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface materials for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(13), 2499–2512 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Petoukhoff, D. K. Vijapurapu, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Computational comparison of conventional and inverted organic photovoltaic performance parameters with varying metal electrode surface workfunction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 572–583 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 51(1), 16–34 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Steim, F. R. Kogler, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface materials for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(13), 2499–2512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Towards efficient tin-doped indium oxide ITO-free inverted organic solar cells using metal cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Meiss, N. Allinger, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Improved light harvesting in tin doped indum oxide ITO free inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Tvingstedt and O. Inganäs, “Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(19), 2893–2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allinger, N.

J. Meiss, N. Allinger, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Improved light harvesting in tin doped indum oxide ITO free inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T. R.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Andreasen, B.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Andriessen, R.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Angmo, D.

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azimi, H.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, N. S.

H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blom, P. W. M.

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Steim, F. R. Kogler, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface materials for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(13), 2499–2512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cha, K. C.

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. H.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Chen, Y. J.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Cheng, I. C.

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T.-L.

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C. H.

N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. Y.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dafinger, S.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dam, H. F.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dou, L.

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Duan, H. S.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, K.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Espinosa, N.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.-C.

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galagan, Y.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez-Valls, I.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gritsch, S.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, S. K.

H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauch, J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hawks, S. A.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hingerl, K.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. I.

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hosel, M.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hösel, M.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 51(1), 16–34 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K. H.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Huang, J. S.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. H.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Hummelen, J. C.

V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huss, D.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

K. Tvingstedt and O. Inganäs, “Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(19), 2893–2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, M.

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, M.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kogler, F. R.

R. Steim, F. R. Kogler, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface materials for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(13), 2499–2512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krebs, F. C.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 51(1), 16–34 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kroon, J. M.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, C. H.

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, G. U.

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kwan, W. L.

N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larsen-Olsen, T. T.

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. Y.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. C.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lenzmann, F. O.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Towards efficient tin-doped indium oxide ITO-free inverted organic solar cells using metal cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Meiss, N. Allinger, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Improved light harvesting in tin doped indum oxide ITO free inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. P.

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Lin, M. Y.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lira-Cantu, M.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. Y.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
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Madsen, M. V.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meiss, J.

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Towards efficient tin-doped indium oxide ITO-free inverted organic solar cells using metal cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Meiss, N. Allinger, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Improved light harvesting in tin doped indum oxide ITO free inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihailetchi, V. D.

V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Min, C.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murase, S.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Carroll, D. M.

C. E. Petoukhoff, D. K. Vijapurapu, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Computational comparison of conventional and inverted organic photovoltaic performance parameters with varying metal electrode surface workfunction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 572–583 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Petoukhoff, C. E.

C. E. Petoukhoff, D. K. Vijapurapu, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Computational comparison of conventional and inverted organic photovoltaic performance parameters with varying metal electrode surface workfunction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 572–583 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richard, E.

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riede, M.

J. Meiss, N. Allinger, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Improved light harvesting in tin doped indum oxide ITO free inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riede, M. K.

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Towards efficient tin-doped indium oxide ITO-free inverted organic solar cells using metal cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rispens, M. T.

V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubingh, J.-E. J. M.

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryley, S.

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sapkota, S.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schiefer, S.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Seemann, A.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, N.

N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiu, S. C.

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Son, H. J.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sondergaard, R. R.

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, R. R.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 51(1), 16–34 (2013).
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R. Steim, F. R. Kogler, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface materials for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(13), 2499–2512 (2010).
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C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. Y.

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sweelssen, J.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
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M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
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K. Tvingstedt and O. Inganäs, “Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(19), 2893–2897 (2007).
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Veenstra, S.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S. C.

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verhees, W.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vijapurapu, D. K.

C. E. Petoukhoff, D. K. Vijapurapu, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Computational comparison of conventional and inverted organic photovoltaic performance parameters with varying metal electrode surface workfunction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 572–583 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Waldauf, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, I. J.

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-K.

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Wang, P. S.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Wu, C. I.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W. H.

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. K.

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

Xu, T.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. L.

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. J.

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yip, H. L.

H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, J.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Y.

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, R.

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, B.

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk- heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

H. L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled- monolayer-modified ZnO/metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C. C. Chen, L. Dou, S. Murase, H. S. Duan, S. A. Hawks, T. Xu, H. J. Son, L. Yu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Metal oxide nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in high-performance and stable inverted polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(38), 5267–5272 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tvingstedt and O. Inganäs, “Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(19), 2893–2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Towards efficient tin-doped indium oxide ITO-free inverted organic solar cells using metal cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Meiss, N. Allinger, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Improved light harvesting in tin doped indum oxide ITO free inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Zhan, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. P. Li, and Y. Li, “Surface plasma coupled photovoltaic cell with double layered triangular grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(3), 1021–1026 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen, K. H. Hsu, Y. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. K. Wu, L. A. Wang, C. C. Wu, and S. C. Lee, “White organic light emitting diode with linearly polarized emission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1321–1323 (2013).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

L. Dou, J. Gao, E. Richard, J. You, C. C. Chen, K. C. Cha, Y. He, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Systematic investigation of benzodithiophene- and diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymers designed for single junction and tandem polymer solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(24), 10071–10079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. I. Ho, D. J. Yeh, V. C. Su, C. H. Yang, P. C. Yang, M. Y. Pu, C. H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S. C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Mihailetchi, P. W. M. Blom, J. C. Hummelen, and M. T. Rispens, “Cathode dependence of the open- circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6849–6854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

D. Angmo, I. Gonzalez-Valls, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, S. Sapkota, S. Schiefer, B. Zimmermann, Y. Galagan, J. Sweelssen, M. Lira-Cantu, R. Andriessen, J. M. Kroon, and F. C. Krebs, “Low-cost upscaling compatibility of five different ITO-free architectures for polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130(2), 944–954 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

R. Steim, F. R. Kogler, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface materials for organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(13), 2499–2512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. A (1)

N. Espinosa, F. O. Lenzmann, S. Ryley, D. Angmo, M. Hosel, R. R. Søndergaard, D. Huss, S. Dafinger, S. Gritsch, J. M. Kroon, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to- roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1(24), 7037–7049 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. (1)

R. R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 51(1), 16–34 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Resonant and nonresonant plasmonic nanoparticle enhancement for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 153–161 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C. C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (3)

D. Angmo, S. A. Gevorgyan, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Hosel, M. Jorgensen, R. Gupta, G. U. Kulkarni, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalability and stability of very thin, roll-to-roll processed, large area, indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules,” Org. Electron. 14(3), 984–994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1473–1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu, I. J. Wang, J. Y. Sun, W. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, J. S. Huang, and C. F. Lin, “Sol gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Org. Electron. 11(11), 1828–1834 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (5)

M. Zhang, T.-L. Chiu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, J.-K. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Roughness characterization of silver oxide anodes for use in efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2606–2609 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Petoukhoff, D. K. Vijapurapu, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Computational comparison of conventional and inverted organic photovoltaic performance parameters with varying metal electrode surface workfunction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 572–583 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(7), 1785–1799 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, B. Andreasen, M. Hösel, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, R. R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, and F. C. Krebs, “A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 735–743 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Galagan, J.-E. J. M. Rubingh, R. Andriessen, C.-C. Fan, P. W. M. Blom, S. C. Veenstra, and J. M. Kroon, “ITO free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1339–1343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Y. Liu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chang, K. H. Tsai, J. S. Huang, C. Y. Chou, I. J. Wang, P. S. Wang, C. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, C. L. Yeh, C. I. Wu, and C. F. Lin, “Morphological evolution of the poly(3- hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4964–4969 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic fabrication processes of nano-grating structure. (b) Schematic diagrams of the polymer solar cell structures on different transparent electrodes. Left is sample A, and right is sample B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopy images of (a) nano-grating structure with a period of 500 nm and the line width of 200 nm on the glass substrate. (b) nano-grating structure whose slits are filled by PEDOT:PSS on the glass substrate. (c) atomic force microscopy (AFM) of (b). (d) SEM cross-sectional image of (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The reflection spectra of the glass substrates coated with different transparent electrode layers. The (b) absorption spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The absorption spectra of the solar cells with different transparent electrode layers. The (b) EQE spectra, (c) The simulated results for the absorption spectra at different periods, and (d) J-V characteristics of samples A, B and C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The field intensity distribution under TE and TM wave in samples (a) A, (b) B, and (c) C. (d) SEM cross- sectional image of Si/ PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The device performance of polymer solar cells with different transparent electrode layers.

Metrics