Abstract

We have demonstrated a gallium nitride (GaN)-based green light-emitting diode (LED) with graphene/indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent contact. The ohmic characteristic of the p-GaN and graphene/ITO contact could be preformed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 min. The specific contact resistance of p-GaN/graphene/ITO (3.72E-3 Ω·cm2) is one order less than that of p-GaN/ITO. In addition, the 20-mA forward voltage of LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent (3.05 V) is 0.09 V lower than that of ITO LEDs (3.14 V). Besides, We have got an output power enhancement of 11% on LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent contact.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
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  11. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
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  18. T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).
  19. B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
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  20. J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baik, K. H.

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, H.

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S. J.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

Chang, C. S.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. F.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

Chi, G. C.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, M.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. J.

J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. R.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choung, J. W.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, R. W.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. S.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cuong, T. V.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eddy, C. R.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, G. Y.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. S.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hite, J. K.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W. K.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.-K.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, C. K.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. P.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. C.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iijima, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. Y.

J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, G.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahng, Y. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, J. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-J.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. J.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. R.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-Y.

Kim, J.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-W.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C. H.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. H.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. S.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. Y.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

Lee, Y. S.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lei, T.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J. H.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. K.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. M.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastro, M. A.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Min, K. I.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, T. S.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

Ozyilmaz, B.

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paik, U.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, A. H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

Park, J.-S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W. I.

J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

Pham, V. H.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pong, B. J.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samal, M.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, T. H.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. P.

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. I.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. K.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tong, S. W.

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. M.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. T.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L. W.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. F.

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yeh, C. L.

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

Yi, D. K.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, G.-C.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, J.

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, L.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Dev. (1)

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 52(10), 2346–2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 134–139 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 125103 (2011).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (2)

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2783–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The IV characteristics and dynamic resistances of the LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent contact with annealing temperatures from 300 °C to 600 °C and the LEDs with ITO annealed at 500 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The 20-mA Vf of the LEDs with graphene/ITO at various annealing temperatures. The inset of Fig. 2 shows the IV characteristics of 500 °C annealed p-GaN/graphene/ITO contact and p-GaN/ITO contact.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output powers and EQE as a function of the injection current for all LEDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field emission intensity images of the all LED samples at 20 and 60 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wall-plug efficiency with the injection currents of LED I and LED II.

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