Abstract

We propose a polymer photovoltaic device with a new scattering mechanism based on photon absorption and re-emission in a quantum dot layer. A matrix of aluminum nanorods with optimized radius and period are used to modify the coupling of light emitted from the quantum dots into the polymer layer. Our analysis shows that this architecture is capable of increasing the absorption of an ordinary polymer photovoltaic device by 28%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A272–A285 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
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  7. L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Ye, S. Chaudhary, P. Kuang, and K.-M. Ho, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12213–12221 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design Considerations for Plasmonic Photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. J. Nozik, “Quantum dot solar cells,” Physica E 14, 115–120(2002).
  28. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Yao, M.-T. Tsai, A.-F. Liu, M.-D. Yang, and J.-T. Lai, “Current matching using CdSe quantum dots to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S6), A953–A963 (2013).
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  30. The experimental absorption data (A.U.) was obtained from solution and has been converted into absorption (%) using typical k values for bulk.
  31. J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stratakis and E. Kymakis, “Nanoparticle-based plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices,” Mater. Today 16(4), 133–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-Enhanced Organic Photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% Efficiency Barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chou and W. Ding, “Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A60–A76 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Yao, M.-T. Tsai, A.-F. Liu, M.-D. Yang, and J.-T. Lai, “Current matching using CdSe quantum dots to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S6), A953–A963 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Mokkapati and K. R. Catchpole, “Nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 101101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. I. Sha, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Wu, and W. C. Chew, “Optical and electrical study of organic solar cells with a 2D grating anode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2572–2580 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ye, S. Chaudhary, P. Kuang, and K.-M. Ho, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12213–12221 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Song and A. Uddin, “Design of high efficiency organic solar cell with light trapping,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A606–A621 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kim, D. S. Jeong, T. S. Lee, W. S. Lee, and K.-S. Lee, “Plasmonic nanograting design for inverted polymer solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A729–A739 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A272–A285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design Considerations for Plasmonic Photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2–3), 273–292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Nozik, “Quantum dot solar cells,” Physica E 14, 115–120(2002).

Aarø, D.

Abass, A.

Abdelaziz, A.

B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

Atwater, H. A.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design Considerations for Plasmonic Photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-Enhanced Organic Photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% Efficiency Barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazan, G. C.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bjerring, M.

O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2–3), 273–292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Mokkapati and K. R. Catchpole, “Nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 101101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhary, S.

Chen, C.-C.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chew, W. C.

Chou, S. Y.

Choy, W. C. H.

Collins, S. D.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, W.

Dittmer, J. J.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dou, L.

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design Considerations for Plasmonic Photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furlan, A.

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fyenbo, J.

Gan, Q.

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-Enhanced Organic Photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% Efficiency Barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, S.

B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, O.

O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, K. H.

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K.-M.

Hong, Z.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, W. U.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janssen, R. A. J.

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, D. S.

Jørgensen, M.

Kafafi, Z. H.

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-Enhanced Organic Photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% Efficiency Barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, T.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, I.

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A272–A285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, P.

Kymakis, E.

E. Stratakis and E. Kymakis, “Nanoparticle-based plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices,” Mater. Today 16(4), 133–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lai, J.-T.

Le, K. Q.

Lee, K.-S.

Lee, T. S.

Lee, W. S.

Lee, Y.-J.

Li, G.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilliedal, M. R.

Liu, A.-F.

Luo, C.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, B.

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Medford, A. J.

Mokkapati, S.

S. Mokkapati and K. R. Catchpole, “Nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 101101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design Considerations for Plasmonic Photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murase, S.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.-Q.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, N. C.

O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

A. J. Nozik, “Quantum dot solar cells,” Physica E 14, 115–120(2002).

O’Carroll, D. M.

B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, K.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakalski, H.

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifter, J.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sha, W. E. I.

Shen, H.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, L.

Stratakis, E.

E. Stratakis and E. Kymakis, “Nanoparticle-based plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices,” Mater. Today 16(4), 133–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tromholt, T.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-T.

Uddin, A.

Wienk, M. M.

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xu, R.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.-D.

Yang, Y.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.-C.

Ye, S.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

Yoshimura, K.

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Seifter, S. D. Collins, C. Luo, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment,” Adv. Mater. 25(11), 1646–1652 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, K. Yoshimura, K. Ohya, R. Xu, S. Ye, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “10.2% Power Conversion Efficiency Polymer Tandem Solar Cells Consisting of Two Identical Sub-Cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(29), 3973–3978 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-Enhanced Organic Photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% Efficiency Barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design Considerations for Plasmonic Photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Yu, S. Goodman, A. Abdelaziz, and D. M. O’Carroll, “Light-management in ultra-thin polythiophene films using plasmonic monopole nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

W. Li, A. Furlan, K. H. Hendriks, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient Tandem and Triple-Junction Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5529–5532 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati and K. R. Catchpole, “Nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 101101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

E. Stratakis and E. Kymakis, “Nanoparticle-based plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices,” Mater. Today 16(4), 133–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun. 4, 1446 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A272–A285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. I. Sha, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Wu, and W. C. Chew, “Optical and electrical study of organic solar cells with a 2D grating anode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2572–2580 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ye, S. Chaudhary, P. Kuang, and K.-M. Ho, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12213–12221 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Song and A. Uddin, “Design of high efficiency organic solar cell with light trapping,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A606–A621 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kim, D. S. Jeong, T. S. Lee, W. S. Lee, and K.-S. Lee, “Plasmonic nanograting design for inverted polymer solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A729–A739 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chou and W. Ding, “Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A60–A76 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Yao, M.-T. Tsai, A.-F. Liu, M.-D. Yang, and J.-T. Lai, “Current matching using CdSe quantum dots to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S6), A953–A963 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Physica E

A. J. Nozik, “Quantum dot solar cells,” Physica E 14, 115–120(2002).

Prog. Polym. Sci.

J. You, L. Dou, Z. Hong, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Recent trends in polymer tandem solar cell research,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 38(12), 1909–1928 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2–3), 273–292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagemann, M. Bjerring, N. C. Nielsen, and F. C. Krebs, “All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1327–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Luque and S. Hegedus, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Wiley, 2003.

C. Cheng and X. Wang, “A Comparative Study of Spectral Characteristics of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots” International Symposium on Biophotonics, Nanophotonics and Metamaterials, 2006. Metamaterials, 366–369 (2006).

The experimental absorption data (A.U.) was obtained from solution and has been converted into absorption (%) using typical k values for bulk.

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