Abstract

We present work at the Steward Observatory Solar Lab on a high concentration photovoltaic system in which sunlight focused by a single large paraboloidal mirror powers many small triple-junction cells. The optical system is of the XRX-Köhler type, comprising the primary reflector (X) and a ball lens (R) at the focus that reimages the primary reflector onto an array of small reflectors (X) that apportion the light to the cells. We present a design methodology that provides generous tolerance to mis-pointing, uniform illumination across individual cells, minimal optical loss and even distribution between cells, for efficient series connection. An operational prototype has been constructed with a 3.3m x 3.3m square primary reflector of 2m focal length powering 36 actively cooled triple-junction cells at 1200x concentration (geometric). The measured end-to-end system conversion efficiency is 28%, including the parasitic loss of the active cooling system. Efficiency ~32% is projected for the next system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, and C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, and R. Angel, “Illumination characterization of glass and metal secondary concentrator elements in a photovoltaic solar concentration system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680E (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “High-performance Kohler concentrators with uniform irradiance on solar cell,” Proc. SPIE 7059, 705908 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, and D. Feuermann, “Effects of ultra-high flux and intensity distribution in multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(4), 297–303 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Rehn, “Optical properties of elliptical reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1480–1488 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

W. A. Beckman, P. Schoffer, W. R. Hartman, and G. O. G. Lof, “Design considerations for a 50-watt photovoltaic power system using concentrated solar energy,” Sol. Energy 10(3), 132–136 (1966), doi:.
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. Pfeiffer, P. Schoffer, B. Spars, and J. Duffie, “Performance of silicon solar cells at high levels of solar radiation,” J. Eng. Power 84(1), 33–38 (1962), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, R.

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Angel, R.

B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, and R. Angel, “Illumination characterization of glass and metal secondary concentrator elements in a photovoltaic solar concentration system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680E (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Angus Macleod, H.

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Baruch, H.

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Beckman, W. A.

W. A. Beckman, P. Schoffer, W. R. Hartman, and G. O. G. Lof, “Design considerations for a 50-watt photovoltaic power system using concentrated solar energy,” Sol. Energy 10(3), 132–136 (1966), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Benítez, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “High-performance Kohler concentrators with uniform irradiance on solar cell,” Proc. SPIE 7059, 705908 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bett, A. W.

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Boisvert, J.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Buljan, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Butel, G. P.

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chaves, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chong, K. K.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, and C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cohen, G.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Connors, T.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cotal, H.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Coughenour, B.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, and R. Angel, “Illumination characterization of glass and metal secondary concentrator elements in a photovoltaic solar concentration system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680E (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Coughenour, B. M.

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cvetkovic, A.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “High-performance Kohler concentrators with uniform irradiance on solar cell,” Proc. SPIE 7059, 705908 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Davison, W.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Duffie, J.

C. Pfeiffer, P. Schoffer, B. Spars, and J. Duffie, “Performance of silicon solar cells at high levels of solar radiation,” J. Eng. Power 84(1), 33–38 (1962), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Feuermann, D.

E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, and D. Feuermann, “Effects of ultra-high flux and intensity distribution in multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(4), 297–303 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gee, R.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. M.

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, and D. Feuermann, “Effects of ultra-high flux and intensity distribution in multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(4), 297–303 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Guter, W.

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hartman, W. R.

W. A. Beckman, P. Schoffer, W. R. Hartman, and G. O. G. Lof, “Design considerations for a 50-watt photovoltaic power system using concentrated solar energy,” Sol. Energy 10(3), 132–136 (1966), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hebert, P.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hernández, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “High-performance Kohler concentrators with uniform irradiance on solar cell,” Proc. SPIE 7059, 705908 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Karam, N.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Katz, E. A.

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, and D. Feuermann, “Effects of ultra-high flux and intensity distribution in multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(4), 297–303 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kearney, D.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, C. E.

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

King, R.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G. S.

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. L.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, and C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lesser, D.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lof, G. O. G.

W. A. Beckman, P. Schoffer, W. R. Hartman, and G. O. G. Lof, “Design considerations for a 50-watt photovoltaic power system using concentrated solar energy,” Sol. Energy 10(3), 132–136 (1966), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lüpfert, E.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, R.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Miñano, J. C.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “High-performance Kohler concentrators with uniform irradiance on solar cell,” Proc. SPIE 7059, 705908 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer, P. Schoffer, B. Spars, and J. Duffie, “Performance of silicon solar cells at high levels of solar radiation,” J. Eng. Power 84(1), 33–38 (1962), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Price, H.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Rehn, H.

H. Rehn, “Optical properties of elliptical reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1480–1488 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, J.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Schoffer, P.

W. A. Beckman, P. Schoffer, W. R. Hartman, and G. O. G. Lof, “Design considerations for a 50-watt photovoltaic power system using concentrated solar energy,” Sol. Energy 10(3), 132–136 (1966), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. Pfeiffer, P. Schoffer, B. Spars, and J. Duffie, “Performance of silicon solar cells at high levels of solar radiation,” J. Eng. Power 84(1), 33–38 (1962), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Spars, B.

C. Pfeiffer, P. Schoffer, B. Spars, and J. Duffie, “Performance of silicon solar cells at high levels of solar radiation,” J. Eng. Power 84(1), 33–38 (1962), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Stalcup, T.

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. L.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, and C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Wheelwright, B.

B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, and R. Angel, “Illumination characterization of glass and metal secondary concentrator elements in a photovoltaic solar concentration system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680E (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Whelan, D.

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Yew, T. K.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, and C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zamora, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zarza, E.

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, and N. Karam, “III-V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Power (1)

C. Pfeiffer, P. Schoffer, B. Spars, and J. Duffie, “Performance of silicon solar cells at high levels of solar radiation,” J. Eng. Power 84(1), 33–38 (1962), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Photon. Energy. (1)

G. P. Butel, B. M. Coughenour, H. Angus Macleod, C. E. Kennedy, and J. R. P. Angel, “Reflectance optimization of second-surface silvered glass mirrors for concentrating solar power and concentrating photovoltaics application,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021808 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Sol. Energy Eng. (1)

H. Price, E. Lüpfert, D. Kearney, E. Zarza, G. Cohen, R. Mahoney, and R. Gee, “Advances in parabolic trough solar power technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 109–125 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Rehn, “Optical properties of elliptical reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1480–1488 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, and R. Angel, “Illumination characterization of glass and metal secondary concentrator elements in a photovoltaic solar concentration system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680E (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Stalcup, R. Angel, B. Coughenour, B. Wheelwright, T. Connors, W. Davison, D. Lesser, J. Elliott, and J. Schaefer, “Dish-based HCPV system initial on-sun performance,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680F (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, R. Jones, D. Whelan, G. S. Kinsey, and R. Alvarez, “XR: a high-performance PV concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6649, 664904 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “High-performance Kohler concentrators with uniform irradiance on solar cell,” Proc. SPIE 7059, 705908 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Free-form Köhler nonimaging optics for photovoltaic concentration,” Proc. SPIE 7849, 78490K (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, and D. Feuermann, “Effects of ultra-high flux and intensity distribution in multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(4), 297–303 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (1)

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, and C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

W. A. Beckman, P. Schoffer, W. R. Hartman, and G. O. G. Lof, “Design considerations for a 50-watt photovoltaic power system using concentrated solar energy,” Sol. Energy 10(3), 132–136 (1966), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Braun, H. Baruch, E. A. Katz, J. M. Gordon, W. Guter, and A. W. Bett, “Localized irradiation effects on tunnel diode transitions in multi-junction concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1692–1695 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

R. Winston, J. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic Press, 2005).

J. Chaves, Introduction to Nonimaging Optics (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, 2008).

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, M. Hernández, and A. Cvetkovic, Köhler concentrator, U.S. Patent Publication 20100123954 (2010)

B. Wheelwright, “Lenticulated Köhler integrator for utility-scale CPV system.” in Renewable Energy and the Environment, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper SRWC2.

J. Greivenkamp, Field Guide to Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Washington, 2004).

J. Roger P. Angel, Photovoltaic generator with a spherical imaging lens for use with a paraboloidal solar reflector, U.S. Patent 8350145 (2013).

R. Koshel, Illumination Engineering (Wiley, 2013).

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (John Wiley and Sons, 1983).

FLABEG Holding GmbH, “Duraglare solar product information,“ (2012), Accessed 8 Nov, 2013. http://www.csp-world.com/sites/default/files/FLABEG_Solar_DuraGlare_10.pdf

A. Lugue and V. Andreev, Concentrator Photovoltaics (Springer, 2007).

G. Butel, T. Connors, B. Coughenour, and R. Angel, “Design, optimization and characterization of secondary optics for a dish-based 1000x HCPV system,” in Renewable Energy and the Environment, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper SRWC3.

S. Kurtz, “Opportunities and Challenges for Development of a Mature Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Industry” (NREL Technical Report, 2012). http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/43208.pdf

Solar Systems Pty Ltd, “Solar Systems Brochure,” (2013), Accessed 1 Dec, 2013. http://solarsystems.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/About-Solar-Systems-Flyer1.pdf

W. Casserly, “Nonimaging optics: concentration and illumination,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Paraboloidal dish concentrator with a central flat receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRX-Köhler advantages. Shown is the imaging property of the projection lens (a) along with parallel ray concentration through the lens for on-axis (b) and off-axis (c) rays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRX-Köhler concentrator XTP design. On-axis rays reflect off the XTP to evenly and symmetrically illuminate the solar cell for both on-axis (a) and off-axis (b) illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRX-Köhler system design.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XRX-Köhler XTP Design

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Univ. of Arizona XRX-Köhler Prototype (a). Dish reflector with ball lens at focus (b). Glass slumped segment of dish reflector (c), ball lens (d), XTP array (e), and single MJ cell (f).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

XTP Array (a) and diagonal cross-section (b) detailing segmented cell array concentration balance from decreasing XTP concentration matching as angle β increases.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gen 2 system measured acceptance angle (a), example daily power output (b), and cell operating temperature compared to ambient temperature throughout the day (c).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gen 3 handheld PCU (a), and renderings of two 6.4kW power generator units with 8 PCU’s and mirrors (b) and PCU active cooling pathways (c)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Component Part Reduction of 3rd Generation PCU

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ξ= n 2 pupil cosθd A S dΩ ,
C= A A' .
C= A A' = n 2 n 2 sin 2 θ sin 2 θ .
C C max = n 2 sin 2 θ .
CAP= C sin θ A ,
CA P * = C sin θ A * ,
θ A = a 2f ,
ef l balllens = nR 2(n1) = 1.458a 2(0.458) =1.59a.
b=1.546a.
s= f 2 [ 1+2 tan 2 ( β 2 )+ tan 4 ( β 2 ) ] .
C 1 = A A =[ s 2 / b 2 cos( β/2 ) ]cos( β 2 )= ( f b ) 2 [ 1+2 tan 2 ( β 2 )+ tan 4 ( β 2 ) ].
C 1edge C 1center =1+ 1 8 ( F # ) 2 + 1 256 ( F # ) 4 .
C 1 0.1 θ A 2 .
C 2 = [ 1 2t αb tan(ω) ] 2 .
1 2 bsinα=ttan(2ω+α/2 ),
t/ αb= 1 2 tan(2ω+α/2 ).
C 2 = [ 1 tan(ω) / tan(2ω+α/ 2) ] 2 .
C=η C 1 C 2 .

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