Abstract

We report an external solar power conversion efficiency of ~0.1% in Bi-Mn-O thin films grown onto (111) oriented Niobium doped SrTiO3 (STO) single crystal substrate by pulse laser deposition (PLD). The films contain BiMnO3 (BMO) and Mn3O4 (MO) phases, which both grow epitaxially. The growth conditions were tailored to obtain films with different Bi/Mn ratios. The films were subsequently illuminated under a sun simulator (AM 1.5 G). We find that the Bi/Mn ratio in the film affects the magnitude of the photo induced voltage and photocurrent and therefore the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Specifically, a higher Bi/Mn ratio (towards unity) in the film increases the power conversion efficiency. This effect is described in terms of a more favorable energy band alignment of the film/substrate hetero-structure junction, which controls photo carrier separation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  26. H. Kliem and B. Martin, “Pseudo-ferroelectric properties by space charge polarization,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(32), 321001 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  40. Y. Muraoka, T. Muramatsu, J. Yamaura, and Z. Hiroi, “Photogenerated hole carrier injection to YBa2Cu3O7−x in an oxide heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2950–2952 (2004).
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  44. R. Meyer and R. Waser, “Hysteretic resistance concepts in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 051611 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Moskvin, A. A. Makhnev, L. V. Nomerovannaya, N. N. Loshkareva, and A. M. Balbashov, “Interplay of p-d and d-d charge transfer transitions in rare-earth perovskite manganites,” Phys. Rev. B 82(3), 035106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yue, K. Zhao, S. Zhao, Z. Lu, X. Li, H. Ni, and A. Wang, “Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(1), 015104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. J. Hwang, A. Boukai, and P. Yang, “High density n-Si/n-TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photoactivity,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 410–415 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Dubal, D. S. Dhawale, R. R. Salunkhe, S. M. Pawar, V. J. Fulari, and C. D. Lokhande, “A novel chemical synthesis of interlocked cubes of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films for supercapacitor application,” J. Alloy. Comp. 484(1), 218–221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Menard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, “Epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic double perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates: growth, characterization, and optimization,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 061621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Zheng, J. Xu, L. Fang, M. R. Shen, and Z. L. Wu, “Separation of the Schottky barrier and polarization effects on the photocurrent of Pt sandwiched Pb(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Son and Y. H. Shin, “Multiferroic BiMnO3 thin films with double SrTiO3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 062902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Scott, “Ferroelectrics go bananas,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(2), 021001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, D. Xue, C. Wu, and Z. Li, “Enhanced ferromagnetic properties of multiferroic Bi1−xSrxMn0.2Fe0.8O3 synthesized by sol–gel process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 20–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kliem and B. Martin, “Pseudo-ferroelectric properties by space charge polarization,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(32), 321001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Loidl, S. Krohns, J. Hemberger, and P. Lunkenheimer, “Bananas go paraelectric,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(19), 191001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Fujino, M. Murakami, S. H. Lim, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig, and I. Takeuchi, “Multiphase growth in Bi-Mn-O thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 013903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pintilie, I. Vrejoiu, G. Le Rhun, and M. Alexe, “Short-circuit photocurrent in epitaxial lead zirconate-titanate thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 064109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, J. H. Hao, and J. Gao, “Rectifying characteristics and transport behavior of SrTiO3−δ(110)/p-Si (100) heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Xiao, X. P. Zhang, and Y. G. Zhao, “Negative differential resistance inLa0.67Ca0.33MnO3−δ/Nb–SrTiO3 p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. M. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, C. M. Xiong, and P. L. Lang, “Rectifying I-V characteristic of LiNbO3/Nb-dopedSrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Xu, S. L. Xu, X. D. Li, H. Wang, and H. Yan, “Chemical bath deposition of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(12), 4091–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Chung, J. P. Lin, and J. M. Wu, “Influence of Mn and Nb dopants on electric properties of chemical-solution-deposited BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 242909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Meyer and R. Waser, “Hysteretic resistance concepts in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 051611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Pintilie and M. Alexe, “Ferroelectric-like hysteresis loop in nonferroelectric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Eerenstein, F. D. Morrison, J. F. Scott, and N. D. Mathur, “Growth of highly resistive BiMnO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. F. Moreira dos Santos, A. K. Cheetham, W. Tian, X. Pan, Y. Jia, N. J. Murphy, J. Lettieri, and D. G. Schlom, “Epitaxial growth and properties of metastable BiMnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 91–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharan, J. Lettieri, Y. Jia, W. Tian, X. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and V. Gopalan, “Bismuth manganite: A multiferroic with a large nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 69(21), 214109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Muraoka, T. Muramatsu, J. Yamaura, and Z. Hiroi, “Photogenerated hole carrier injection to YBa2Cu3O7−x in an oxide heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2950–2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. A. Quijada, J. R. Simpson, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J. W. Lynn, H. D. Drew, Y. M. Mukovskii, and S. G. Karabashev, “Temperature dependence of low-lying electronic excitations of LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 64(22), 224426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. K. Yarmarkin, B. M. Gol’tsman, M. M. Kazanin, and V. V. Lemanov, “Barrier Photovoltaic Effects in PZT Ferroelectric Thin Films,” Phys. Solid State 42(3), 522–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. A. Hill and K. M. Rabe, “First-principles investigation of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in bismuth manganite,” Phys. Rev. B 59(13), 8759–8769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, “Electrical transport through Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 p-n and p-p heterostructures modulated by bound charges at a ferroelectric surface: ferroelectric p-n diode,” Phys. Rev. B 59(17), 11257–11266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Chiba, T. Atou, and Y. Syono, “Magnetic and electrical properties of Bi1−xSrxMnO3: hole-doping effect on ferromagnetic perovskite BiMnO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 132(1), 139–143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Matsumura, Y. Kamaike, T. Horiuchi, M. Shimuzi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, “Thermal Effects in Properties of Photovoltaic Currents of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(9B), 5258–5262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. Schmid, “Multi-ferroic magnetoelectrics,” Ferroelectrics 162(1), 317–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High‐voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(4), 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964

Adamo, C.

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alexe, M.

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Menard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, “Epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic double perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates: growth, characterization, and optimization,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 061621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Pintilie, I. Vrejoiu, G. Le Rhun, and M. Alexe, “Short-circuit photocurrent in epitaxial lead zirconate-titanate thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 064109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pintilie and M. Alexe, “Ferroelectric-like hysteresis loop in nonferroelectric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atou, T.

H. Chiba, T. Atou, and Y. Syono, “Magnetic and electrical properties of Bi1−xSrxMnO3: hole-doping effect on ferromagnetic perovskite BiMnO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 132(1), 139–143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balbashov, A. M.

A. S. Moskvin, A. A. Makhnev, L. V. Nomerovannaya, N. N. Loshkareva, and A. M. Balbashov, “Interplay of p-d and d-d charge transfer transitions in rare-earth perovskite manganites,” Phys. Rev. B 82(3), 035106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthélémy, A.

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, C.

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boris, A. V.

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. J. Hwang, A. Boukai, and P. Yang, “High density n-Si/n-TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photoactivity,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 410–415 (2009).
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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
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S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
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S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
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R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Menard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, “Epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic double perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates: growth, characterization, and optimization,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 061621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B. G.

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. F. Moreira dos Santos, A. K. Cheetham, W. Tian, X. Pan, Y. Jia, N. J. Murphy, J. Lettieri, and D. G. Schlom, “Epitaxial growth and properties of metastable BiMnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 91–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
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S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. H.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
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C. F. Chung, J. P. Lin, and J. M. Wu, “Influence of Mn and Nb dopants on electric properties of chemical-solution-deposited BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 242909 (2006).
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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
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Conry, T. E.

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
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H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
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D. P. Dubal, D. S. Dhawale, R. R. Salunkhe, S. M. Pawar, V. J. Fulari, and C. D. Lokhande, “A novel chemical synthesis of interlocked cubes of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films for supercapacitor application,” J. Alloy. Comp. 484(1), 218–221 (2009).
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Dowden, P. C.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
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M. A. Quijada, J. R. Simpson, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J. W. Lynn, H. D. Drew, Y. M. Mukovskii, and S. G. Karabashev, “Temperature dependence of low-lying electronic excitations of LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 64(22), 224426 (2001).
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Dubal, D. P.

D. P. Dubal, D. S. Dhawale, R. R. Salunkhe, S. M. Pawar, V. J. Fulari, and C. D. Lokhande, “A novel chemical synthesis of interlocked cubes of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films for supercapacitor application,” J. Alloy. Comp. 484(1), 218–221 (2009).
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X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
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F. Zheng, J. Xu, L. Fang, M. R. Shen, and Z. L. Wu, “Separation of the Schottky barrier and polarization effects on the photocurrent of Pt sandwiched Pb(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172101 (2008).
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H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
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R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Menard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, “Epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic double perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates: growth, characterization, and optimization,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 061621 (2009).
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D. P. Dubal, D. S. Dhawale, R. R. Salunkhe, S. M. Pawar, V. J. Fulari, and C. D. Lokhande, “A novel chemical synthesis of interlocked cubes of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films for supercapacitor application,” J. Alloy. Comp. 484(1), 218–221 (2009).
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Fusil, S.

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
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Z. Luo, J. H. Hao, and J. Gao, “Rectifying characteristics and transport behavior of SrTiO3−δ(110)/p-Si (100) heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062105 (2007).
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Gopalan, V.

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
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A. Sharan, J. Lettieri, Y. Jia, W. Tian, X. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and V. Gopalan, “Bismuth manganite: A multiferroic with a large nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 69(21), 214109 (2004).
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Grum, F.

Guo, R.

R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
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S. M. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, C. M. Xiong, and P. L. Lang, “Rectifying I-V characteristic of LiNbO3/Nb-dopedSrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223506 (2006).
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Z. Luo, J. H. Hao, and J. Gao, “Rectifying characteristics and transport behavior of SrTiO3−δ(110)/p-Si (100) heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062105 (2007).
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R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Menard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, “Epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic double perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates: growth, characterization, and optimization,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 061621 (2009).
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A. Loidl, S. Krohns, J. Hemberger, and P. Lunkenheimer, “Bananas go paraelectric,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(19), 191001 (2008).
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A. Matsumura, Y. Kamaike, T. Horiuchi, M. Shimuzi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, “Thermal Effects in Properties of Photovoltaic Currents of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(9B), 5258–5262 (1995).
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Y. J. Hwang, A. Boukai, and P. Yang, “High density n-Si/n-TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photoactivity,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 410–415 (2009).
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Ihlefeld, J.

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ihlefeld, J. F.

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
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H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, M. S.

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
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W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
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H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

A. F. Moreira dos Santos, A. K. Cheetham, W. Tian, X. Pan, Y. Jia, N. J. Murphy, J. Lettieri, and D. G. Schlom, “Epitaxial growth and properties of metastable BiMnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 91–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharan, J. Lettieri, Y. Jia, W. Tian, X. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and V. Gopalan, “Bismuth manganite: A multiferroic with a large nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 69(21), 214109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joo, H. J.

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kamaike, Y.

A. Matsumura, Y. Kamaike, T. Horiuchi, M. Shimuzi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, “Thermal Effects in Properties of Photovoltaic Currents of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(9B), 5258–5262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karabashev, S. G.

M. A. Quijada, J. R. Simpson, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J. W. Lynn, H. D. Drew, Y. M. Mukovskii, and S. G. Karabashev, “Temperature dependence of low-lying electronic excitations of LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 64(22), 224426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazanin, M. M.

V. K. Yarmarkin, B. M. Gol’tsman, M. M. Kazanin, and V. V. Lemanov, “Barrier Photovoltaic Effects in PZT Ferroelectric Thin Films,” Phys. Solid State 42(3), 522–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keimer, B.

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaliullin, G.

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khodan, A.

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
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H. Kliem and B. Martin, “Pseudo-ferroelectric properties by space charge polarization,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(32), 321001 (2008).
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N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krohns, S.

A. Loidl, S. Krohns, J. Hemberger, and P. Lunkenheimer, “Bananas go paraelectric,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(19), 191001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulakov, A.

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, P. L.

S. M. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, C. M. Xiong, and P. L. Lang, “Rectifying I-V characteristic of LiNbO3/Nb-dopedSrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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L. Pintilie, I. Vrejoiu, G. Le Rhun, and M. Alexe, “Short-circuit photocurrent in epitaxial lead zirconate-titanate thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 064109 (2007).
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Lebeugle, D.

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

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A. Sharan, J. Lettieri, Y. Jia, W. Tian, X. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and V. Gopalan, “Bismuth manganite: A multiferroic with a large nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 69(21), 214109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Moreira dos Santos, A. K. Cheetham, W. Tian, X. Pan, Y. Jia, N. J. Murphy, J. Lettieri, and D. G. Schlom, “Epitaxial growth and properties of metastable BiMnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 91–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Usov, I. O.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliu-Doloc, L.

M. A. Quijada, J. R. Simpson, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J. W. Lynn, H. D. Drew, Y. M. Mukovskii, and S. G. Karabashev, “Temperature dependence of low-lying electronic excitations of LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 64(22), 224426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viret, M.

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vlahos, E.

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Von der Linde, D.

M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High‐voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(4), 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vrejoiu, I.

L. Pintilie, I. Vrejoiu, G. Le Rhun, and M. Alexe, “Short-circuit photocurrent in epitaxial lead zirconate-titanate thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 064109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Z. Yue, K. Zhao, S. Zhao, Z. Lu, X. Li, H. Ni, and A. Wang, “Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(1), 015104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Xu, S. L. Xu, X. D. Li, H. Wang, and H. Yan, “Chemical bath deposition of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(12), 4091–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Waser, R.

R. Meyer and R. Waser, “Hysteretic resistance concepts in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 051611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, “Electrical transport through Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 p-n and p-p heterostructures modulated by bound charges at a ferroelectric surface: ferroelectric p-n diode,” Phys. Rev. B 59(17), 11257–11266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

J. Wei, D. Xue, C. Wu, and Z. Li, “Enhanced ferromagnetic properties of multiferroic Bi1−xSrxMn0.2Fe0.8O3 synthesized by sol–gel process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 20–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

J. Wei, D. Xue, C. Wu, and Z. Li, “Enhanced ferromagnetic properties of multiferroic Bi1−xSrxMn0.2Fe0.8O3 synthesized by sol–gel process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 20–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. M.

C. F. Chung, J. P. Lin, and J. M. Wu, “Influence of Mn and Nb dopants on electric properties of chemical-solution-deposited BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 242909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. L.

F. Zheng, J. Xu, L. Fang, M. R. Shen, and Z. L. Wu, “Separation of the Schottky barrier and polarization effects on the photocurrent of Pt sandwiched Pb(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, M.

S. Fujino, M. Murakami, S. H. Lim, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig, and I. Takeuchi, “Multiphase growth in Bi-Mn-O thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 013903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wyczisk, F.

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. S.

Y. S. Xiao, X. P. Zhang, and Y. G. Zhao, “Negative differential resistance inLa0.67Ca0.33MnO3−δ/Nb–SrTiO3 p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C. M.

S. M. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, C. M. Xiong, and P. L. Lang, “Rectifying I-V characteristic of LiNbO3/Nb-dopedSrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

H. Y. Xu, S. L. Xu, X. D. Li, H. Wang, and H. Yan, “Chemical bath deposition of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(12), 4091–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

F. Zheng, J. Xu, L. Fang, M. R. Shen, and Z. L. Wu, “Separation of the Schottky barrier and polarization effects on the photocurrent of Pt sandwiched Pb(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. L.

H. Y. Xu, S. L. Xu, X. D. Li, H. Wang, and H. Yan, “Chemical bath deposition of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(12), 4091–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. S.

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xue, D.

J. Wei, D. Xue, C. Wu, and Z. Li, “Enhanced ferromagnetic properties of multiferroic Bi1−xSrxMn0.2Fe0.8O3 synthesized by sol–gel process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 20–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaura, J.

Y. Muraoka, T. Muramatsu, J. Yamaura, and Z. Hiroi, “Photogenerated hole carrier injection to YBa2Cu3O7−x in an oxide heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2950–2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. Y. Xu, S. L. Xu, X. D. Li, H. Wang, and H. Yan, “Chemical bath deposition of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(12), 4091–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-H.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

Y. J. Hwang, A. Boukai, and P. Yang, “High density n-Si/n-TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photoactivity,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 410–415 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. S.

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yao, K.

W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarmarkin, V. K.

V. K. Yarmarkin, B. M. Gol’tsman, M. M. Kazanin, and V. V. Lemanov, “Barrier Photovoltaic Effects in PZT Ferroelectric Thin Films,” Phys. Solid State 42(3), 522–527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yi, S.

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

You, L.

R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, Z.

Z. Yue, K. Zhao, S. Zhao, Z. Lu, X. Li, H. Ni, and A. Wang, “Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(1), 015104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. P.

Y. S. Xiao, X. P. Zhang, and Y. G. Zhao, “Negative differential resistance inLa0.67Ca0.33MnO3−δ/Nb–SrTiO3 p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

Z. Yue, K. Zhao, S. Zhao, Z. Lu, X. Li, H. Ni, and A. Wang, “Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(1), 015104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

Z. Yue, K. Zhao, S. Zhao, Z. Lu, X. Li, H. Ni, and A. Wang, “Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(1), 015104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

Y. S. Xiao, X. P. Zhang, and Y. G. Zhao, “Negative differential resistance inLa0.67Ca0.33MnO3−δ/Nb–SrTiO3 p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, C. M. Xiong, and P. L. Lang, “Rectifying I-V characteristic of LiNbO3/Nb-dopedSrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, F.

F. Zheng, J. Xu, L. Fang, M. R. Shen, and Z. L. Wu, “Separation of the Schottky barrier and polarization effects on the photocurrent of Pt sandwiched Pb(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Luo, J. H. Hao, and J. Gao, “Rectifying characteristics and transport behavior of SrTiO3−δ(110)/p-Si (100) heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Xiao, X. P. Zhang, and Y. G. Zhao, “Negative differential resistance inLa0.67Ca0.33MnO3−δ/Nb–SrTiO3 p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, C. M. Xiong, and P. L. Lang, “Rectifying I-V characteristic of LiNbO3/Nb-dopedSrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High‐voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(4), 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Yang, S. L. Lee, S. Yi, B. G. Chae, S. H. Lee, H. J. Joo, and M. S. Jang, “Schottky barrier effects in the photocurrent of sol–gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin film capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, L. W. Martin, S. J. Byrnes, T. E. Conry, S. R. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y. Chu, C. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Zheng, J. Xu, L. Fang, M. R. Shen, and Z. L. Wu, “Separation of the Schottky barrier and polarization effects on the photocurrent of Pt sandwiched Pb(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, L. You, L. Chen, D. Wu, and J. Wang, “Photovoltaic property of BiFeO3 thin films with 109° domains,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Moreira dos Santos, A. K. Cheetham, W. Tian, X. Pan, Y. Jia, N. J. Murphy, J. Lettieri, and D. G. Schlom, “Epitaxial growth and properties of metastable BiMnO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 91–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Béa, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, A. Khodan, J.-P. Contour, S. Fusil, F. Wyczisk, A. Forget, D. Lebeugle, D. Colson, and M. Viret, “Influence of parasitic phases on the properties of BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Son and Y. H. Shin, “Multiferroic BiMnO3 thin films with double SrTiO3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 062902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Eerenstein, F. D. Morrison, J. F. Scott, and N. D. Mathur, “Growth of highly resistive BiMnO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101906 (2005).
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L. Pintilie and M. Alexe, “Ferroelectric-like hysteresis loop in nonferroelectric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and J. L. Musfeldt, “Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 192901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Chung, J. P. Lin, and J. M. Wu, “Influence of Mn and Nb dopants on electric properties of chemical-solution-deposited BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 242909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying current-voltage characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Muraoka, T. Muramatsu, J. Yamaura, and Z. Hiroi, “Photogenerated hole carrier injection to YBa2Cu3O7−x in an oxide heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2950–2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

H. Y. Xu, S. L. Xu, X. D. Li, H. Wang, and H. Yan, “Chemical bath deposition of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(12), 4091–4096 (2006).
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Ferroelectrics

H. Schmid, “Multi-ferroic magnetoelectrics,” Ferroelectrics 162(1), 317–338 (1994).
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J. Alloy. Comp.

D. P. Dubal, D. S. Dhawale, R. R. Salunkhe, S. M. Pawar, V. J. Fulari, and C. D. Lokhande, “A novel chemical synthesis of interlocked cubes of hausmannite Mn3O4 thin films for supercapacitor application,” J. Alloy. Comp. 484(1), 218–221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, D. Xue, C. Wu, and Z. Li, “Enhanced ferromagnetic properties of multiferroic Bi1−xSrxMn0.2Fe0.8O3 synthesized by sol–gel process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 20–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Pintilie, I. Vrejoiu, G. Le Rhun, and M. Alexe, “Short-circuit photocurrent in epitaxial lead zirconate-titanate thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 064109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Menard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, “Epitaxial thin films of the multiferroic double perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates: growth, characterization, and optimization,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 061621 (2009).
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S. Fujino, M. Murakami, S. H. Lim, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig, and I. Takeuchi, “Multiphase growth in Bi-Mn-O thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 013903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Meyer and R. Waser, “Hysteretic resistance concepts in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 051611 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

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A. Loidl, S. Krohns, J. Hemberger, and P. Lunkenheimer, “Bananas go paraelectric,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(19), 191001 (2008).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

Z. Yue, K. Zhao, S. Zhao, Z. Lu, X. Li, H. Ni, and A. Wang, “Thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects in miscut Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(1), 015104 (2010).
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J. Solid State Chem.

H. Chiba, T. Atou, and Y. Syono, “Magnetic and electrical properties of Bi1−xSrxMnO3: hole-doping effect on ferromagnetic perovskite BiMnO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 132(1), 139–143 (1997).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Matsumura, Y. Kamaike, T. Horiuchi, M. Shimuzi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, “Thermal Effects in Properties of Photovoltaic Currents of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(9B), 5258–5262 (1995).
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Nano Lett.

Y. J. Hwang, A. Boukai, and P. Yang, “High density n-Si/n-TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photoactivity,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 410–415 (2009).
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Nat. Nanotechnol.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. B

A. Sharan, J. Lettieri, Y. Jia, W. Tian, X. Pan, D. G. Schlom, and V. Gopalan, “Bismuth manganite: A multiferroic with a large nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 69(21), 214109 (2004).
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N. A. Hill and K. M. Rabe, “First-principles investigation of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in bismuth manganite,” Phys. Rev. B 59(13), 8759–8769 (1999).
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A. S. Moskvin, A. A. Makhnev, L. V. Nomerovannaya, N. N. Loshkareva, and A. M. Balbashov, “Interplay of p-d and d-d charge transfer transitions in rare-earth perovskite manganites,” Phys. Rev. B 82(3), 035106 (2010).
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M. A. Quijada, J. R. Simpson, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J. W. Lynn, H. D. Drew, Y. M. Mukovskii, and S. G. Karabashev, “Temperature dependence of low-lying electronic excitations of LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 64(22), 224426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, “Electrical transport through Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 p-n and p-p heterostructures modulated by bound charges at a ferroelectric surface: ferroelectric p-n diode,” Phys. Rev. B 59(17), 11257–11266 (1999).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. N. Kovaleva, A. V. Boris, C. Bernhard, A. Kulakov, A. Pimenov, A. M. Balbashov, G. Khaliullin, and B. Keimer, “Spin-Controlled Mott-Hubbard bands in LaMnO3 Probed by Optical Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(14), 147204 (2004).
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Phys. Solid State

V. K. Yarmarkin, B. M. Gol’tsman, M. M. Kazanin, and V. V. Lemanov, “Barrier Photovoltaic Effects in PZT Ferroelectric Thin Films,” Phys. Solid State 42(3), 522–527 (2000).
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Other

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F. Horikiri, T. Ichikawa, A. Kaimai, H. Matsumoto, K. Yashiro, T. Kawada, and J. Mizusaki, “High temperature photovoltaic effect at Nb doped SrTiO3/electrode,” http://www.electrochem.org/dl/ma/206/pdfs/1783.pdf

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD θ-2θ scans of the three types of films grown on (111) oriented STO: Nb substrate, showing the reflections of the (11-1)m orientation of BMO and that of the (101)t orientation of Mn3O4 phase. Circular and rectangular symbols in (a) indicate (00l) Kβ lines and tungsten contamination of the x-ray tube source. (b) Φ scan measurements show the three fold symmetry of BMO and Mn oxide phases in the films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

J-V characteristic curves of Film A (a) & (b), and Film B (d) respectively, with positive and negative poling demonstrating the photovoltaic (PV) effect. The inset in (d) represents a zoom of the J-V curve around origin. The geometry of the tested structure is illustrated in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Macroscopic ferroelectric hysteresis obtained from Film A and Film B (a) Optical absorption coefficient (α) curves as a function of photon energy, measured by Ellipsometry for multiphase Bi-Mn-O thin films (c) corresponding estimated indirect bandgaps (d) Deconvoluted XPS spectra of the Mn 2p3/2 peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Energy band diagram of isolated ITO, BMO and doped STO (b) Energy band diagram of an ideal BMO/Nb:STO interface at thermal equilibrium (c) Energy band diagram of ITO/BMO/Nb:STO interface with showing the polarization effect. All units are in eV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ferroelectric hysteresis loops (a, b) and the corresponding current loops (c, d) at different cycling frequencies: while there is a significant leakage contribution, the fact that the switching current dominates at low frequency proves the existence of the ferroelectric component.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Piezoresponse force microscopy measurement showing that the as-grown epitaxial BMO/STO(111) heterostructure has the polarization oriented downward (bright contrast). (a) surface topography, and (b) PFM image. The regions/grains that do not show a response (grey contrast) are either oriented in-plane, or represent the minor MO phase. (c) Out-of-plane PFM hysteresis loop obtained from one of the grains, showing the significant imprint of polarization.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Phases, Compositions and Optical Properties of Bi-Mn-O Films Grown by PLD on (111)-oriented Nb Doped SrTiO3 Substrates

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