Abstract

Hydrogen generation through direct photoelectrolysis of water was studied using photoelectrochemical cells made of different facets of free-standing polar GaN system. To build the fundamental understanding at the differences of surface photochemistry afforded by the GaN {0001}and {0001}polar surfaces, we correlated the relationship between the surface structure and photoelectrochemical performance on the different polar facets. The photoelectrochemical measurements clearly revealed that the Ga-polar surface had a more negative onset potential relative to the N-polar surface due to the much negative flat-band potential. At more positive applied voltages, however, the N-polar surface yielded much higher photocurrent with conversion efficiency of 0.61% compared to that of 0.55% by using the Ga-polar surface. The reason could be attributed to the variation in the band structure of the different polar facets via Mott-Schottky analyses. Based on this work, understanding the facet effect on photoelectrochemical activity can provide a blueprint for the design of materials in solar hydrogen applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kato, K. Asakura, and A. Kudo, “Highly efficient water splitting into H2 and O2 over Lanthanum-doped NaTaO3 photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(10), 3082–3089 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Beach, R. T. Collins, and J. A. Turner, “Band-edge potentials of n-type and p-type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(7), A899–A904 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. K. Hsu, Y. G. Lin, and Y. C. Chen, “Polarity-dependent photoelectrochemical activity in ZnO nanostructures for solar water splitting,” Electrochem. Commun. 13(12), 1383–1386 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Hsu, Y. G. Lin, and Y. C. Chen, “Polarity-dependent photoelectrochemical activity in ZnO nanostructures for solar water splitting,” Electrochem. Commun. 13(12), 1383–1386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. D. Beach, R. T. Collins, and J. A. Turner, “Band-edge potentials of n-type and p-type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(7), A899–A904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kato, K. Asakura, and A. Kudo, “Highly efficient water splitting into H2 and O2 over Lanthanum-doped NaTaO3 photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(10), 3082–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, P. B.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ambache, O.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, K.

H. Kato, K. Asakura, and A. Kudo, “Highly efficient water splitting into H2 and O2 over Lanthanum-doped NaTaO3 photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(10), 3082–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aykanat, A. I.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, T. J.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beach, J. D.

J. D. Beach, R. T. Collins, and J. A. Turner, “Band-edge potentials of n-type and p-type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(7), A899–A904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bevan, K. H.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calarco, R.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Y.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Hsu, Y. G. Lin, and Y. C. Chen, “Polarity-dependent photoelectrochemical activity in ZnO nanostructures for solar water splitting,” Electrochem. Commun. 13(12), 1383–1386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, R. T.

J. D. Beach, R. T. Collins, and J. A. Turner, “Band-edge potentials of n-type and p-type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(7), A899–A904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cui, K.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denbaars, S. P.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Domen, K.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, J. H.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Serra, M. V.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamelin, D. R.

D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, W. P.

I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R. D.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gruverman, A.

B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakima, A. R.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, M.

K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirako, A.

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. J.

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Hsu, Y. G. Lin, and Y. C. Chen, “Polarity-dependent photoelectrochemical activity in ZnO nanostructures for solar water splitting,” Electrochem. Commun. 13(12), 1383–1386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huygens, I. M.

I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hybertsen, M. S.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inumaru, H.

D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, T.

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwaki, Y.

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. S.

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadowaki, H.

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaeding, J.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karrer, U.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

H. Kato, K. Asakura, and A. Kudo, “Highly efficient water splitting into H2 and O2 over Lanthanum-doped NaTaO3 photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(10), 3082–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kibria, M. G.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, J. N.

K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, A.

H. Kato, K. Asakura, and A. Kudo, “Highly efficient water splitting into H2 and O2 over Lanthanum-doped NaTaO3 photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(10), 3082–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. C.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. L.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. C.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. G.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Hsu, Y. G. Lin, and Y. C. Chen, “Polarity-dependent photoelectrochemical activity in ZnO nanostructures for solar water splitting,” Electrochem. Commun. 13(12), 1383–1386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, D.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüth, H.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, K.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marso, M.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masui, H.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meijers, R.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mi, Z.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. T.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Muckerman, J. T.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemanich, R. J.

B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neuberger, R.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, H.

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohkawa, K.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ono, M.

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paradis, S.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierre, A.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pimenta, A. L.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richter, T.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriquez, B. J.

B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, J.

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schalwig, J.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simodaira, Y.

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small, Y. A.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, T.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strubbe, K.

I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. W.

D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takata, T.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teramura, K.

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theuwis, A.

I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, J. A.

J. D. Beach, R. T. Collins, and J. A. Turner, “Band-edge potentials of n-type and p-type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(7), A899–A904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V D Hart, A.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. B.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. C.

B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, G. C.

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, D. K.

D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, D.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

H. S. Jung, Y. J. Hong, Y. Li, J. Cho, Y. J. Kim, and G. C. Yi, “Photocatalysis using GaN nanowires,” ACS Nano 2(4), 637–642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. J. Rodriquez, W. C. Yang, R. J. Nemanich, and A. Gruverman, “Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 112115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.

K. Domen, J. N. Kondo, M. Hara, and T. Takata, “Photo- and mechano-catalytic overall water splitting reactions to form hydrogen and oxygen on heterogeneous catalysts,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73(6), 1307–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Commun.

Y. K. Hsu, Y. G. Lin, and Y. C. Chen, “Polarity-dependent photoelectrochemical activity in ZnO nanostructures for solar water splitting,” Electrochem. Commun. 13(12), 1383–1386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci.

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, S. B. Wang, J. T. Miller, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag@Ag3(PO4)1−x nanoparticle photosensitized ZnO nanorod-array photoanodes for water oxidation,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(10), 8917–8922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. K. Zhong, J. W. Sun, H. Inumaru, and D. R. Gamelin, “Solar water oxidation by composite catalyst/α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6086–6087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

H. Kato, K. Asakura, and A. Kudo, “Highly efficient water splitting into H2 and O2 over Lanthanum-doped NaTaO3 photocatalysts with high crystallinity and surface nanostructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(10), 3082–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. Ono, K. Fujii, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, T. Yao, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical reaction and H2 generation at zero bias optimized by carrier concentration of n-type GaN,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(5), 054708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

J. D. Beach, R. T. Collins, and J. A. Turner, “Band-edge potentials of n-type and p-type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(7), A899–A904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

X. Shen, Y. A. Small, J. Wang, P. B. Allen, M. V. Fernandez-Serra, M. S. Hybertsen, and J. T. Muckerman, “Photocatalytic water oxidation at the GaN (101̅0)−water interface,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(32), 13695–13704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

H. Kadowaki, J. Sato, H. Kobayashi, N. Saito, H. Nishiyama, Y. Simodaira, and Y. Inoue, “Photocatalytic activity of the RuO2-dispersed composite p-block metal oxide LiInGeO4 with d10-d10 configuration for water decomposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(48), 22995–23000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Fujii, Y. Iwaki, H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Sato, J. Kaeding, T. Yao, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nonpolar and Semipolar GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6573–6578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

D. Zhuang and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. V D Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent Photoconductivity in MBE-Grown GaN-Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale

Y. G. Lin, Y. K. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, L. C. Chen, S. Y. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Visible-light-driven photocatalytic carbon-doped porous ZnO nanoarchitectures for solar water-splitting,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6515–6519 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

K. Maeda, K. Teramura, D. Lu, T. Takata, N. Saito, Y. Inoue, and K. Domen, “Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water,” Nature 440(7082), 295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, Y. C. Lin, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Mn-doped GaN as photoelectrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water under visible light,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A678–A683 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

I. M. Huygens, A. Theuwis, W. P. Gomes, and K. Strubbe, “Photoelectrochemical reactions at the n-GaN electrode in 1 M H2SO4 and in acidic solutions containing Cl− ions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(11), 2301–2306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

M. Stutzmann, O. Ambache, M. Eickhoff, U. Karrer, A. L. Pimenta, R. Neuberger, J. Schalwig, R. Dimitrov, P. J. Schuck, and R. D. Grober, “Playing with polarity,” Phys. Status Solidi 228(2), 505–512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of the wurtzite crystallographic cell of GaN for Ga-polar and N-polar c-direction with the corresponding polarization field. (b) X-Ray Diffraction pattern of GaN for Ga-polar and N-polar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photoelectrochemical response of the two polar surfaces in 1 M HCl solution in three-electrode system. (b) Photoconversion efficiency of the Photoelectrochemical cells for two polar surfaces as a function of applied potential in two-electrode system. Inset: Photoelectrochemical response of the two polar surfaces in 1 M HCl solution in two-electrode system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mott-Schottky plots of the (a) Ga-polar and N-polar surfaces, extrapolated to their corresponding flat band potentials. (b) The resulting band diagram for the Ga-polar and N-polar free standing thin film.

Equations (3)

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η e f f = [ j p ( E r e v o V C E ) I o ] * 100 %
1 C 2 = ( 2 e o ε ε o N d ) [ ( V a p p V f b ) k T e o ]
R exp ( ϕ k T )

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