Abstract

Light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111) substrate (GaN-on-Si based LEDs) is presented in this study. Three different designs of GaN-on-Si based LEDs with the lateral structure, lateral structure on mirror/Si(100) substrate, and vertical structure on mirror/Si(100) substrate were epitaxially grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and fabricated using chemical lift-off and double-transfer techniques. Current-voltage, light output power, far-field radiation patterns, and electroluminescence characteristics of these three LEDs were discussed. At an injection current of 700 mA, the output powers of LEDs with the lateral structure on mirror/Si(100) substrate and vertical structure on mirror/Si(100) substrate were measured to be 155.07 and 261.07 mW, respectively. The output powers of these two LEDs had 70.63% and 187.26% enhancement compared to that of LED with the lateral structure, respectively. The result indicated this vertical structure LED was useful in improving the light extraction due to an enhancement in light scattering efficiency while the high-reflection mirror and diffuse surfaces were employed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Egawa, B. Zhang, and H. Ishikawa, “High performance of InGaN LEDs on (111) silicon substrates grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(3), 169–171 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Raghavan and J. M. Redwing, “Intrinsic stresses in AlN layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire and (111) Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2995–3003 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 415–417 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
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  18. C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
  24. T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride‐based light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride‐based light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

2005 (3)

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Egawa, B. Zhang, and H. Ishikawa, “High performance of InGaN LEDs on (111) silicon substrates grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(3), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Raghavan and J. M. Redwing, “Intrinsic stresses in AlN layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire and (111) Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2995–3003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alam, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beechem, T. E.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

Berishev, I.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, F.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Blasing, J.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bläsing, J.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bojarczuk, N. A.

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M. D.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. C.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. L.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christen, J.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davydov, V. Y.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Mierry, P.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dempewolf, A.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, J.

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

T. Egawa, B. Zhang, and H. Ishikawa, “High performance of InGaN LEDs on (111) silicon substrates grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(3), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evarestov, R.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goncharuk, I. N.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graham, S.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

Graul, J.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M.

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, T.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heuken, M.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirosawa, K.

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

Hu, E.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

T. Egawa, B. Zhang, and H. Ishikawa, “High performance of InGaN LEDs on (111) silicon substrates grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(3), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. W.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, T.

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, J. W.

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kachi, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karlicek, R.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karlicek, R. F.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T. M.

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kisielowski, C.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitaev, Y. E.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koide, N.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krost, A.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, P.

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, T.

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lahreche, H.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lahrèche, H.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laugt, M.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laügt, M.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. R.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-R.

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, M.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W. H.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

Li, Z.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, B. W.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

Liu, H.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, Z.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzini, P.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manabe, K.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Metzner, S.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Z. L.

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mirgorodsky, A.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mo, C.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moku, T.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, H.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, N.

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Navamathavan, R.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, K.

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, A.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride‐based light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pong, B. J.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

Pu, Y.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ra, Y. H.

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raghavan, S.

S. Raghavan and J. M. Redwing, “Intrinsic stresses in AlN layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire and (111) Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2995–3003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ravash, R.

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J. M.

S. Raghavan and J. M. Redwing, “Intrinsic stresses in AlN layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire and (111) Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2995–3003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, T.

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruvimov, S.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryou, J. H.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. W.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semchinova, O.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A. N.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, M.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soga, T.

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tackeuchi, A.

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tottereau, O.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C. A.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K. M.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uffmann, D.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umeno, M.

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vennegues, P.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. J.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, A.

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E. R.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. C.

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. K.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

T. Egawa, B. Zhang, and H. Ishikawa, “High performance of InGaN LEDs on (111) silicon substrates grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(3), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. H. Ra, R. Navamathavan, J. H. Park, and C. R. Lee, “High-quality uniaxial InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si (111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(6), 2111–2117 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ju, T. Jeong, C.-R. Lee, and J. H. Baek, “High-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si using wafer bonding technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).

C. Wang, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Y. Lu, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, S. L. Chen, Y. C. Yang, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “Use of patterned laser liftoff process and electroplating nickel layer for the fabrication of vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. Hu, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Christen, T. Riemann, S. Richter, J. Blasing, A. Diez, A. Krost, A. Alam, and M. Heuken, “Bright blue electroluminescence from an InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well diode on Si (111): Impact of an AlGaN/GaN multilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2211–2213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 570–572 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Katona, M. D. Craven, P. T. Fini, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Observation of crystallographic wing tilt in cantilever epitaxy of GaN on silicon carbide and silicon (111) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2907–2909 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laugt, P. De Mierry, P. Vennegues, H. Lahreche, M. Leroux, and P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, “Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes on silicon by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(11), 1494–1496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

T. Egawa, B. Zhang, and H. Ishikawa, “High performance of InGaN LEDs on (111) silicon substrates grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(3), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuroda and A. Tackeuchi, “Influence of free carrier screening on the luminescence energy shift and carrier lifetime of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3071–3074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, P. Chen, and Z. L. Miao, “Micro-Raman investigation of strain in GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111),” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3503–3510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, and K. Manabe, “Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4389–4392 (1995).
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S. Raghavan and J. M. Redwing, “Intrinsic stresses in AlN layers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire and (111) Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2995–3003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (4)

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si (111) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennegues, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (111),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1–2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Watanabe, T. Takeuchi, K. Hirosawa, H. Amano, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “The growth of single crystalline GaN on a Si substrate using AIN as an intermediate layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1–4), 391–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Ravash, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, A. Dempewolf, S. Metzner, T. Hempel, J. Christen, and A. Krost, “MOVPE growth of semi-polar GaN light-emitting diode structures on planar Si (112) and Si (113) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 370, 288–292 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(24A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, and A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Egawa, T. Moku, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohtsuka, and T. Jimbo, “Improved characteristics of blue and green InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on Si grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(26B), L663–L664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J.-L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, A. N. Smirnov, J. Graul, O. Semchinova, D. Uffmann, M. Smirnov, A. Mirgorodsky, and R. Evarestov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58(19), 12899–12907 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

H. Ishikawa, G. Zhao, N. Nakada, T. Egawa, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “High‐Quality GaN on Si Substrate Using AlGaN/AlN Intermediate Layer,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176(1), 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride‐based light‐emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of three kinds of GaN-on-Si based LED structure: (a) LS-LED (lateral structure without mirror), (b) DT-LED (lateral structure with mirror), and (c) VS-LED (vertical structure).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I-V characteristics of the LS-LED, DT-LED, and VS-LED measured under the (a) forward and (b) reverse biases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of the LS-LED, DT-LED, and VS-LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission wavelength as a function of injection current for the LS-LED, DT-LED, and VS-LED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output power and external quantum efficiency as a function of injection current for the LS-LED, DT-LED, and VS-LED.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Far-field radiation patterns of the LS-LED, DT-LED, and VS-LED at the injection current of 350 mA. Emission images (@ 20 mA) of the (b) LS-LED, (c) DT-LED, and (d) VS-LED.

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