Abstract

We report a Ge-on-Si photodetector without doped Ge or Ge-metal contacts. Despite the simplified fabrication process, the device shows a responsivity of 1.14 A/W at −4 V reverse bias and 1.44 A/W at −12V, at 1550 nm wavelength. Dark current is less than 1µA under both bias conditions. We also demonstrate open eye diagrams at 40Gb/s.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (5)

2013 (7)

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1310–1316 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29374–29382 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, S. B. Krasulick, P. K.-L. Yu, D. Van Orden, J. Y. Spann, C. C. Blivin, L. He, H. Cai, J. M. Dallesasse, R. J. Stone, A. Mizrahi, “Integrated tunable CMOS laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28048–28053 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “Ultra-responsive phase shifters for depletion mode silicon modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Wesley, D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion Silicon-on-Insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

G. Li, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Sahni, H. Thacker, J. Yao, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Improving CMOS-compatible germanium photodetectors,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26345–26350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, G.-Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Baba, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baeyens, Y.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

Barwicz, T.

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blivin, C. C.

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buckwalter, J. F.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Cai, H.

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

Cassan, E.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. K.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8300112 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Cohen, R.

Creazzo, T.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dallesasse, J. M.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Davids, P. S.

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

Ding, L.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, N.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8300112 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, G.-Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunham, S.

Ejzak, G. A.

Fang, Q.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8300112 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fisher, M.

Fong, J.

Galland, C.

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gould, M.

Green, W. M. J.

Grund, D. W.

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

He, L.

Hirayama, N.

Hochberg, M.

Horikawa, T.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lateral and vertical p-i-n Ge-on-Si photodetectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic cross-section, (b) layout and a photo of the floating germanium detector. Only silicon, germanium, p and n doping layers are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical mode profile and (b) electrical field at −4V reverse bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of floating germanium detectors and a reference grating coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Device IV curves in darkness and with various incident optical powers; (b) Photocurrent as a function of input optical power at different bias voltages. The slope of the linear fit gives the responsivity for each bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Device S21 at different reverse bias voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

40 Gb/s eye diagrams at (a) −4V, (b) −8V, (c) −12 V and (d) −16V bias.

Equations (2)

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f t = 0.44 v sat L =33.6GHz
f RC = 1 2π C pd ( R pd + R L ) =36.8GHz

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