Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate an inter-satellite laser link acquisition scheme for GRACE Follow-On. In this strategy, dedicated acquisition sensors are not required—instead we use the photodetectors and signal processing hardware already required for science operation. To establish the laser link, a search over five degrees of freedom must be conducted (± 3 mrad in pitch/yaw for each laser beam, and ± 1 GHz for the frequency difference between the two lasers). This search is combined with a FFT-based peak detection algorithm run on each satellite to find the heterodyne beat note resulting when the two beams are interfered. We experimentally demonstrate the two stages of our acquisition strategy: a ± 3 mrad commissioning scan and a ± 300 μrad reacquisition scan. The commissioning scan enables each beam to be pointed at the other satellite to within 142 μrad of its best alignment point with a frequency difference between lasers of less than 20 MHz. Scanning over the 4 alignment degrees of freedom in our commissioning scan takes 214 seconds, and when combined with sweeping the laser frequency difference at a rate of 88 kHz/s, the entire commissioning sequence completes within 6.3 hours. The reacquisition sequence takes 7 seconds to complete, and optimizes the alignment between beams to allow a smooth transition to differential wavefront sensing-based auto-alignment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, J. Famiglietti, “Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India,” Nature 460, 999–1003 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Velicogna, “Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE,” Geophys. Res. Lett 36, L19503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. The GRACE-C Interferometer team, “The GRACE-C interferometer,” technical note, the Albert Einstein Institute (2011).
  12. NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Studies, “GRACE II : Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment,” (2009), http://decadal.gsfc.nasa.gov/grace2.html .
  13. The LISA Project, “LISA Pre-Phase A Report,” technical note, the Albert Einstein Institute (1998).
  14. G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Lange, B. Smutny, “Optical inter-satellite links based on homodyne BPSK modulation: heritage, status, and outlook,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XVII, G. Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE5712, 1–12 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).
  18. M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.
  19. C. Mahrdt, “Status Laser Link Acquisition at AEI,” presented at the GRACE Follow-On Workshop, Heron Island, Australia, Sept. 2012.
  20. C. Mahrdt, Laser Link Acquisition for the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer, Ph.D. thesis, Albert Einstein Institute (2013).
  21. F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” in American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics GNC Conference, Boston, USA, 2013.
  22. F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Cirillo, P. F. Gath, “Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 154, 012014 (2009).
  24. W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).
  25. W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).
  26. R. Pierce, J. Leitch, M. Stephens, P. Bender, R. Nerem, “Intersatellite range monitoring using optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5007–5019 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Fritschel, N. Mavalvala, D. Shoemaker, D. Sigg, M. Zucker, G. González, “Alignment of an Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6734–6747 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Langenbach, M. Schmid, “Fast steering mirror for laser communication,” in 11th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, ESMATS 2005, B. Warmbein, ed., Vol. 591 of ESA Special Publication, pp. 27–33 (2005).
  33. D. Wuchenich, Inter-satellite laser interferometry, Ph.D. thesis, The Australian National University (2014).
  34. Kirk McKenzie, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (personal communication, 2013).
  35. J. Chitode, Principles Of Communication (Technical Publications, Pune, 2009).

2014

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012

T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. Velicogna, “Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE,” Geophys. Res. Lett 36, L19503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, J. Famiglietti, “Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India,” Nature 460, 999–1003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Cirillo, P. F. Gath, “Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 154, 012014 (2009).

2008

2007

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

Abdalati, W.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ales, F.

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” in American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics GNC Conference, Boston, USA, 2013.

Bender, P.

Bettadpur, S.

B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biancale, R.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braxmaier, C.

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” in American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics GNC Conference, Boston, USA, 2013.

Caldwell, M.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cazenave, A.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, D.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chitode, J.

J. Chitode, Principles Of Communication (Technical Publications, Pune, 2009).

Cirillo, F.

F. Cirillo, P. F. Gath, “Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 154, 012014 (2009).

Czichy, R.

F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dallmann, D.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

de Cino, J.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

de Vine, G.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Draaisma, F.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Famiglietti, J.

M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, J. Famiglietti, “Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India,” Nature 460, 999–1003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fields, R.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

Flechtner, F.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Folkner, W.

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Folkner, W. M.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Fritschel, P.

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Fritschel, N. Mavalvala, D. Shoemaker, D. Sigg, M. Zucker, G. González, “Alignment of an Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6734–6747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, D.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García, A.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gath, P.

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” in American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics GNC Conference, Boston, USA, 2013.

Gath, P. F.

F. Cirillo, P. F. Gath, “Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 154, 012014 (2009).

González, G.

Gregory, M.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

Halverson, P. G.

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heine, F.

F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

Heinzel, G.

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoyland, D.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivins, E. R.

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, T.

T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennrich, O.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” in American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics GNC Conference, Boston, USA, 2013.

Kämpfner, H.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).

Killow, C.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klipstein, B.

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klipstein, W.

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Klipstein, W. M.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

KLmpfner, H.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

Lam, T. T.-Y.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Lange, R.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lange, B. Smutny, “Optical inter-satellite links based on homodyne BPSK modulation: heritage, status, and outlook,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XVII, G. Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE5712, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langenbach, H.

H. Langenbach, M. Schmid, “Fast steering mirror for laser communication,” in 11th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, ESMATS 2005, B. Warmbein, ed., Vol. 591 of ESA Special Publication, pp. 27–33 (2005).

Leitch, J.

R. Pierce, J. Leitch, M. Stephens, P. Bender, R. Nerem, “Intersatellite range monitoring using optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5007–5019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

Lemoine, F.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemoine, J.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Llubes, M.

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lombard, A.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lunde, C.

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

Luthcke, S.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutzer, M.

F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).

Mahrdt, C.

C. Mahrdt, “Status Laser Link Acquisition at AEI,” presented at the GRACE Follow-On Workshop, Heron Island, Australia, Sept. 2012.

C. Mahrdt, Laser Link Acquisition for the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer, Ph.D. thesis, Albert Einstein Institute (2013).

Mavalvala, N.

McCarthy, J.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenzie, K.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

McKenzie, Kirk

Kirk McKenzie, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (personal communication, 2013).

Meers, B. J.

Meyer, R.

F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

Middleton, K.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, E.

Mühlnikel, G.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nerem, R.

R. Pierce, J. Leitch, M. Stephens, P. Bender, R. Nerem, “Intersatellite range monitoring using optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5007–5019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pace, C.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

Pfeffer, W.

T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phinney, E. S.

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, R.

R. Pierce, J. Leitch, M. Stephens, P. Bender, R. Nerem, “Intersatellite range monitoring using optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5007–5019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Ramillien, G.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ray, R.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reigber, C.

B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, M.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remya, F.

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ries, J. C.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, D.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. I.

Rodell, M.

M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, J. Famiglietti, “Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India,” Nature 460, 999–1003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowlands, D.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rüdiger, A.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saucke, K.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

H. Langenbach, M. Schmid, “Fast steering mirror for laser communication,” in 11th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, ESMATS 2005, B. Warmbein, ed., Vol. 591 of ESA Special Publication, pp. 27–33 (2005).

Schmidt, R.

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D.

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

Shaddock, D. A.

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, B.

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

Sigg, D.

Smutny, B.

R. Lange, B. Smutny, “Optical inter-satellite links based on homodyne BPSK modulation: heritage, status, and outlook,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XVII, G. Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE5712, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spero, R.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

Spero, R. E.

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steier, F.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

R. Pierce, J. Leitch, M. Stephens, P. Bender, R. Nerem, “Intersatellite range monitoring using optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5007–5019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Sterr, U.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, S.

T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tapley, B.

B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tapley, B. D.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

te Plate, M.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, P. F.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

Velicogna, I.

M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, J. Famiglietti, “Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India,” Nature 460, 999–1003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velicogna, “Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE,” Geophys. Res. Lett 36, L19503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahr, J.

T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wand, V.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wandernoth, B.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ware, B.

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, M.

B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, M. M.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuchenich, D.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

D. Wuchenich, Inter-satellite laser interferometry, Ph.D. thesis, The Australian National University (2014).

Yu, N.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

Zlotnicki, V.

J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, M.

Zwally, H.

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conference Proceedings

D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA Phasemeter,” AIP Conference Proceedings 873, 654–660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Classical and Quantum Gravity

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. García, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, K. Danzmann, “The LTP interferometer and phasemeter,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, K. Danzmann, F. Draaisma, A. García, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, C. Killow, K. Middleton, M. te Plate, D. Robertson, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, F. Steier, V. Wand, H. Ward, “Successful testing of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) interferometer engineering model,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 22, S149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, P. Fritschel, D. A. Shaddock, W. Folkner, E. S. Phinney, “Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer,” Classical and Quantum Gravity 23, 4887–4894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Earth and Planetary Science Letters

A. Lombard, D. Garcia, G. Ramillien, A. Cazenave, R. Biancale, J. Lemoine, F. Flechtner, R. Schmidt, M. Ishii, “Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 254, 194–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett

B. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophys. Res. Lett 31, L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Velicogna, “Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE,” Geophys. Res. Lett 36, L19503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. Wahr, S. Swenson, V. Zlotnicki, I. Velicogna, “Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Global Planet. Change

G. Ramillien, A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remya, R. Biancale, “Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE,” Global Planet. Change 53, 198–208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.

F. Cirillo, P. F. Gath, “Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 154, 012014 (2009).

Journal of Geodesy

B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” Journal of Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 51, 226–238 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Jacob, J. Wahr, W. Pfeffer, S. Swenson, “Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise,” Nature 482, 514–518 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodell, I. Velicogna, J. Famiglietti, “Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India,” Nature 460, 999–1003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. Luthcke, H. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D. Rowlands, R. Ray, R. Nerem, F. Lemoine, J. McCarthy, D. Chinn, “Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations,” Science 314, 1286–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE Measurements of Mass Variability in the Earth System,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Lange, B. Smutny, “Optical inter-satellite links based on homodyne BPSK modulation: heritage, status, and outlook,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XVII, G. Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE5712, 1–12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XX, Stephen Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE6877, 687702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference MILCOM 2010, San Jose, California, USA, pp. 1583–1587 (2010).

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. KŁmpfner, R. Meyer, R. Fields, C. Lunde, “Tesat Laser Communication Terminal Performance results on 5.6 Gbit Coherent Inter Satellite and Satellite to Ground Links,” in International Conference on Space Optics 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece, 4–8 Oct. 2010.

C. Mahrdt, “Status Laser Link Acquisition at AEI,” presented at the GRACE Follow-On Workshop, Heron Island, Australia, Sept. 2012.

C. Mahrdt, Laser Link Acquisition for the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer, Ph.D. thesis, Albert Einstein Institute (2013).

F. Ales, P. Gath, U. Johann, C. Braxmaier, “Modeling and Simulation of a Laser Ranging Interferometer Acquisition and Guidance Algorithm,” in American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics GNC Conference, Boston, USA, 2013.

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, R. Pierce, “Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II,” in Proceedings of the 2010 Earth Science Technology Forum(2010).

W. M. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. M. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, R. Spero, R. Thompson, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, R. Pierce, T. T.-Y. Lam, D. Shaddock, “Laser frequency stabilization for GRACE-2,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Earth Science Technology Forum (2011).

The GRACE-C Interferometer team, “The GRACE-C interferometer,” technical note, the Albert Einstein Institute (2011).

NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Studies, “GRACE II : Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment,” (2009), http://decadal.gsfc.nasa.gov/grace2.html .

The LISA Project, “LISA Pre-Phase A Report,” technical note, the Albert Einstein Institute (1998).

H. Langenbach, M. Schmid, “Fast steering mirror for laser communication,” in 11th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, ESMATS 2005, B. Warmbein, ed., Vol. 591 of ESA Special Publication, pp. 27–33 (2005).

D. Wuchenich, Inter-satellite laser interferometry, Ph.D. thesis, The Australian National University (2014).

Kirk McKenzie, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (personal communication, 2013).

J. Chitode, Principles Of Communication (Technical Publications, Pune, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Signal processing for the commissioning and reacquisition scans implemented in our experiment. Operations in the large rectangular box performed on an FPGA. The electronic delay in the FSM command coordinates path (going to the data logger) is to account for the computation time of the FFT. QPD: quadrant photodetector, ADC: analog-to-digital converter, FPGA: field programmable gate array, FFT: fast Fourier transform, DAC: digital-to-analog converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Steering mirror scan patterns covering Ruc = 3 mrad with rwc = 142 μrad resolution. (a) 36-to-1 Lissajous scan on steering mirror FSM1; (b) 595 point hexagonal scan on steering mirror FSM2. The hexagonal steering mirror will dwell at each point in its scan long enough to allow the Lissajous steering mirror to cover an entire Ruc scan. During the spatial scanning, the frequency of the slave laser will be slowly swept, and the spatial scanning sequence will repeat until the entire frequency uncertainty range func has been covered.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified experimental setup for the acquisition strategy tests showing the measurement concept and key hardware components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steering mirror by Newport Corporation used in experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beat note amplitude versus local steering mirror misalignment with no distant beam misalignment. Subplots (a) and (c) show the experimental data points overlaid on the normalized beat note amplitude peak expected for GFO. Subplots (b) and (d) are the corresponding contour plots of the experimental data points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beat note amplitude versus distant steering mirror misalignment when the local beam alignment stays fixed. Subplots (a) and (c) show the experimental data points overlaid on the normalized beat note amplitude peak expected for GFO. Subplots (b) and (d) are the corresponding contour plots of the experimental data points.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results from a worst-case scenario commissioning test where the points of highest C/N0 are offset from the scan tracks. Both steering mirrors cover the Ruc = 3 mrad uncertainty cone with rwc = 142 μrad resolution, with a Lissajous scan on FSM1 and a hexagonal pattern on FSM2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A section of raw data saved during a commissioning scan showing the maximum amplitude picked for each FFT as a function of time, when the beat note frequency has come into the detection band and the alignment points are found.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results from a reacquisition scan, with Ruc = 300 μrad. The Lissajous scan on FSM1 now has rwc = 14 μrad resolution, while the hexagonal scan on FSM2 has rwc = 142 μrad as before (but with fewer scan points compared to the commissioning scan).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ = 2 β x ,
θ = 2 β y .

Metrics