Abstract

The fracture of laser material in a ceramic Nd:YAG laser pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode was analyzed. The fracture of the laser material was found to occur when the critical temperature difference between the center of the material and the surface exceeded 355°C. To quantitatively analyze the material fracture, the heat-generation length and heat-generation radius of the laser material were calculated and the critical pump power per unit volume was examined. Under lasing and non-lasing conditions, the fracture of laser material occurred at 24.41 kW/cm3 and 19.53 kW/cm3, respectively, for 2 at.% ceramic Nd:YAG and 25.57 kW/cm3 and 20.47 kW/cm3, respectively, for 4 at.% ceramic Nd:YAG.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

C.-M. Ok, B.-T. Kim, D.-L. Kim, “The output characteristics of a fiber-coupled laser-diode pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser due to thermal lensing effect,” Kor. J. Opt. Photonics 17(5), 455–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kawai, Y. Miyasaka, K. Otsuka, T. Ohtomo, T. Narita, J.-Y. Ko, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “Oscillation spectra and dynamic effects in a highly-doped microchip Nd:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2293–2302 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (3)

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Optical properties and laser characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939–941 (2000).

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucianetti, T. Graf, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Thermooptical properties of transversely pumped composite YAG rods with a Nd-doped core,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 220–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(6), 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Eichenholz, M. Richardson, “Measurement of thermal lensing in Cr3+-doped colquiriites,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

D. Welford, D. M. Rines, B. J. Dinerman, R. Martinsen, “Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1075–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. P. H. Hasselman, “Figures-of-merit for the thermal stress resistance of high-temperature brittle materials: a review,” Ceramurgia International 4(4), 147–150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akatsuka, M.

Bass, M.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, J.-F.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dinerman, B. J.

D. Welford, D. M. Rines, B. J. Dinerman, R. Martinsen, “Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1075–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eichenholz, J. M.

J. M. Eichenholz, M. Richardson, “Measurement of thermal lensing in Cr3+-doped colquiriites,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friel, G. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

A. Lucianetti, T. Graf, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Thermooptical properties of transversely pumped composite YAG rods with a Nd-doped core,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 220–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, P. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasselman, D. P. H.

D. P. H. Hasselman, “Figures-of-merit for the thermal stress resistance of high-temperature brittle materials: a review,” Ceramurgia International 4(4), 147–150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. L.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Thermal-birefringence-induced depolarization in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Optical properties and laser characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939–941 (2000).

Ishikawa, K.

Izawa, Y.

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, R.

Kim, B.-T.

C.-M. Ok, B.-T. Kim, D.-L. Kim, “The output characteristics of a fiber-coupled laser-diode pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser due to thermal lensing effect,” Kor. J. Opt. Photonics 17(5), 455–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-L.

C.-M. Ok, B.-T. Kim, D.-L. Kim, “The output characteristics of a fiber-coupled laser-diode pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser due to thermal lensing effect,” Kor. J. Opt. Photonics 17(5), 455–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, J.-Y.

Kurimura, S.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Thermal-birefringence-induced depolarization in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Optical properties and laser characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939–941 (2000).

Li, C.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. G.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, G. C.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lucianetti, A.

A. Lucianetti, T. Graf, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Thermooptical properties of transversely pumped composite YAG rods with a Nd-doped core,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 220–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

MacDonald, M.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(6), 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinsen, R.

D. Welford, D. M. Rines, B. J. Dinerman, R. Martinsen, “Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1075–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyasaka, Y.

Moore, N.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naito, K.

Nakai, S.

Narita, T.

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(6), 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Ohmi, M.

Ohtomo, T.

Ok, C.-M.

C.-M. Ok, B.-T. Kim, D.-L. Kim, “The output characteristics of a fiber-coupled laser-diode pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser due to thermal lensing effect,” Kor. J. Opt. Photonics 17(5), 455–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

Patle, M. K. R.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, M.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

J. M. Eichenholz, M. Richardson, “Measurement of thermal lensing in Cr3+-doped colquiriites,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rines, D. M.

D. Welford, D. M. Rines, B. J. Dinerman, R. Martinsen, “Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1075–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roos, M. B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(6), 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Thermal-birefringence-induced depolarization in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Optical properties and laser characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939–941 (2000).

Shirakawa, A.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, I.

Song, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Takaichi, K.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.-I.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, T.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

A. Lucianetti, T. Graf, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Thermooptical properties of transversely pumped composite YAG rods with a Nd-doped core,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 220–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(6), 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

A. Lucianetti, T. Graf, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Thermooptical properties of transversely pumped composite YAG rods with a Nd-doped core,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 220–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. MacDonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(6), 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Welford, D.

D. Welford, D. M. Rines, B. J. Dinerman, R. Martinsen, “Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1075–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z.

Z. Xiong, Z. G. Li, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

Yanagitani, T.

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, Y.

Yoshida, K.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Thermal-birefringence-induced depolarization in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Optical properties and laser characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939–941 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties and highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B 71(4), 469–473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, J.-F. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “110 W ceramic Nd3+: Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 25–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, K. Yoshida, “Optical properties and laser characteristics of highly Nd3+-doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939–941 (2000).

Ceramurgia International (1)

D. P. H. Hasselman, “Figures-of-merit for the thermal stress resistance of high-temperature brittle materials: a review,” Ceramurgia International 4(4), 147–150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (7)

A. Lucianetti, T. Graf, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, “Thermooptical properties of transversely pumped composite YAG rods with a Nd-doped core,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 220–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. K. R. Patle, A. Kar, M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab Laser-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Welford, D. M. Rines, B. J. Dinerman, R. Martinsen, “Observation of enhanced thermal lensing due to near-Gaussian pump energy deposition in a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1075–1080 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

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Kor. J. Opt. Photonics (1)

C.-M. Ok, B.-T. Kim, D.-L. Kim, “The output characteristics of a fiber-coupled laser-diode pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser due to thermal lensing effect,” Kor. J. Opt. Photonics 17(5), 455–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (8)

D. J. Green, An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Ceramics (Cambridge University, 1998), Chap. 9.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970), Chap. 13.

B. A. Boley and J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Dover, 2011), Chap. 8.

Y. A. Cengel, Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach (McGraw-Hill, 2003), Chap. 3.

Y. Aoyagi, T. Taira, and I. Shoji, “Thermal analysis simulation using depolarization loss in solid-state microchip laser,” SICE 2003 Annual Conference in Fukui 2, 195–2000 (2003).

D. Munz and T. Fett, Ceramics (Springer, 1998), Chap. 11.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 1999), Chap. 7.

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation: Fundamentals, Advanced Concepts and Applications (Springer, 2005), Chap. 13.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the ceramic Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual diagram of the heat generation of the laser material.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature difference as a function of pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum pump power as a function of material diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fractured 2 at.% ceramic Nd:YAG. (b) Fractured 4 at.% ceramic Nd:YAG.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Thermal Shock Resistance of the Laser Materials Studied

Tables Icon

Table 2 Temperature Difference, Heat Generation Radius, and Heat Generation Length per Dopant Concentration at Maximum Pump Power

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Table 3 Critical Pump Power and Critical Pump Power per Unit Volume per Dopant Concentration

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔT(r,z)= αηPexp(αz) 4πk[1exp(αL)] [ ln( r 0 2 r 2 )+ E i ( 2 r 0 2 w p 2 ) E i ( 2 r 2 w p 2 ) ]
R= σ max (1ν) αE
R = σ max k(1ν) αE
σ max = f(β)αE 1ν [ T( r 0 )T(r) ]
f(β)= β β+1.25 β 0.65 +4
Δ T c = σ max (1ν) f(β)αE σ max (1ν) αE ( 1+ 4 β + 5 4 β 0.35 )
Q ˙ =kA dT dx
Q ˙ = g ˙ V
ΔT= T 0 T s = g ˙ r 0 2 4k

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