Abstract

In this paper we report on a low energy consumption CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulator based on Franz-Keldysh effect in germanium on silicon. We performed integrated electro-optical simulations in order to optimize the main characteristics of the modulator. A 3.3 dB extinction ratio for a 30 µm long modulator is demonstrated under 3 V bias voltage at an operation wavelength of 1647 nm. The estimated energy consumption is as low as 20 fJ/bit.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Koehl, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Optics and Photonics News 22(3), 24–29 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Franz, “Einfluß eines elektrischen Feldes auf eine optische Absorptionskante,” Z. Naturforschung 23A, 484–489 (1958).
  6. L. V. Keldysh, “Behaviour of non-metallic crystals in strong electric fields,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 33, 994–1003 (1957).
  7. R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. (2011)
  8. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, Th. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
  12. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-siliconinsulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
  25. V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
  26. A. P. Vasudev, J.-H. Kang, J. Park, X. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Electro-optical modulation of a silicon waveguide with an “epsilon-near-zero” material,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26387–26397 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi EA modulator at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 20, 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

2011 (6)

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, Th. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-siliconinsulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 9(1), 101–107 (2011).

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koehl, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Optics and Photonics News 22(3), 24–29 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eu-Jin Lim, T. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Lo, D. -L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent coupled germanium electro absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium PIN photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 5040–5046 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Shen, F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

W. Franz, “Einfluß eines elektrischen Feldes auf eine optische Absorptionskante,” Z. Naturforschung 23A, 484–489 (1958).

1957 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Behaviour of non-metallic crystals in strong electric fields,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 33, 994–1003 (1957).

Asghari, M.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augendre, E.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bijlani, B.

Bolger, P. M.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Lamaestre, R. E.

de Salvo, B.

Dickson, W.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, L.

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

Emboras, A.

Eu-Jin Lim, A.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Fong, J.

Franz, W.

W. Franz, “Einfluß eines elektrischen Feldes auf eine optische Absorptionskante,” Z. Naturforschung 23A, 484–489 (1958).

Freude, W.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

Hahn, H.

Ikonic, Z.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 9(1), 101–107 (2011).

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-H.

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Behaviour of non-metallic crystals in strong electric fields,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 33, 994–1003 (1957).

Kelsall, R. W.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 9(1), 101–107 (2011).

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koehl, S.

S. Koehl, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Optics and Photonics News 22(3), 24–29 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-siliconinsulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. -L.

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Leroux, C.

Leufke, P. M.

Leuthold, J.

Liang, D.

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lindenmann, N.

Liow, T.

Liu, A.

S. Koehl, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Optics and Photonics News 22(3), 24–29 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lo, G.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-siliconinsulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luff, B. J.

Luo, Y.

Ma, R.-M.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melikyan, A.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Najar, A.

Nambiar, S.

Pan, D.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

S. Koehl, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Optics and Photonics News 22(3), 24–29 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Pollak, F. H.

H. Shen, F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Qing, F.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, Th.

Shafiiha, R.

Shen, H.

H. Shen, F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 9(1), 101–107 (2011).

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Vo, T. P.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Walheim, S.

Wang, X.

Ye, J.

Yu, M.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-siliconinsulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-siliconinsulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Large electro optic effect in tensile strained Ge on Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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L. V. Keldysh, “Behaviour of non-metallic crystals in strong electric fields,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 33, 994–1003 (1957).

Nano Lett. (2)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (4)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide integrated ultralow energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eu-Jin Lim, T. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Lo, D. -L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent coupled germanium electro absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium PIN photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 5040–5046 (2010).

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, Th. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi EA modulator at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 20, 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Vasudev, J.-H. Kang, J. Park, X. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Electro-optical modulation of a silicon waveguide with an “epsilon-near-zero” material,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26387–26397 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Photonic. Nanostruct (3)

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 10(1), 183–189 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. 9(1), 101–107 (2011).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Franz, “Einfluß eines elektrischen Feldes auf eine optische Absorptionskante,” Z. Naturforschung 23A, 484–489 (1958).

Other (1)

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Plasmonic enhanced electro-optic stub modulator on a SOI platform,” Photonic. Nanostruct. (2011)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the Franz-Keldysh effect plasmonic modulator. The modulator is surrounded by SiO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized intensity distribution of the plasmonic mode supported by the vertical MIS structure. The parameters of the structure are the followings: w = 150 nm, h = 250 nm, hSlot = 5 nm, hBuf = 60 nm and hBot = 40 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of the static electric field in V/cm for an applied voltage V = 0 V (a) and V = 3 V (b). The parameters of the structure are the followings: w = 150 nm, h = 250 nm, hSlot = 5 nm, hBuf = 60 nm and hBot = 40 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optimization of the FoM Δαeffeff as a function of w and h for different driving voltages V. Two cases are selected: w = 150 nm and w = 250 nm, (b) Optimization of the parameter Δαeffeff as a function of the driving voltage V for w = 150 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Extinction ratio of the plamonic modulator as a function of h for different driving voltages V and w = 150 nm. The longitude of the plasmonic modulator is L = 30 μm, (b) PL of the plasmonic modulator for a driving voltage V = 0 V and w = 150 nm. The longitude of the plasmonic modulator is L = 30 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simulated figure of merit |Δαeff|/αeff for different operating wavelengths of the device. The optimized device: w = 150 nm, h = 250 nm is considered; (b) Material absorption of the Ge due to the FKE for different operational wavelengths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical Power Consumption of the FK Effect Modulators

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δε( E,F )=( B E 2 ) ( h ¯ θ ) 1 2 [ G( η )+iF( η ) ]   
h ¯ θ= ( e 2 h ¯ 2 F 2 2μ ) 1/3
η= E g E  ħθ    

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