Abstract

We explore the design of an LED-based communication system comprising two free space optical links: one narrow-beam (primary) link for bulk data transmission and one wide-beam (beacon) link for alignment and support of the narrow-beam link. Such a system combines the high throughput of a highly directional link with the robust insensitivity to pointing errors of a wider-beam link. We develop a modeling framework for this dual-link configuration and then use this framework to explore system tradeoffs in power, range, and achievable rates. The proposed design presents a low-cost, compact, robust means of communication at short- to medium-ranges, and calculations show that data rates on the order of Mb/s are achievable at hundreds of meters with only a few LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F.R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 1979), pp. 1474–1486.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).
  3. M. Wolf, D. Kreß, “Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10(2), 8–14 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A.K. Majumdar, J.C. Ricklin, Free-space Laser Communications: Principles and Advances (Springer, 2008, vol. 2).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Rzasa, S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 8162, 81620E (2011).
  6. F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.
  7. J. Rzasa, M. C. Ertem, C. C. Davis., “Pointing, acquisition, and tracking considerations for mobile directional wireless communications systems,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 88740C (2013).
  8. T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Springer, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. O’Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nature Photonics 1, 245–247 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chowdhury, M. Katz, “Data download on move in indoor hybrid (radio-optical) WLAN-VLC hotspot coverages,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, (IEEE, 2013), 1–5.
  13. T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Epple, “Using a GPS-aided inertial system for coarse-pointing of free-space optical communication terminals,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 630418 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Hybrid free space optical/RF networks for tactical operations,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 409–415.
  17. H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Tang, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in International Conference on Communications, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3139–3143.
  19. I. S. Ansari, M.S. Alouini, F. Yilmaz, “On the performance of hybrid RF and RF/FSO fixed gain dual-hop transmission systems,” in Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, (SIECPC, 2013), pp. 1–6.
  20. W. Zhang, S. Hranilovic, C. Shi, “Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 27, 1698–1708 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Shur, R. Zukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1691–1703.
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Kahn, J. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 1997), pp. 265–298.
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Ning, R. Winston, J. O’Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics 26, 300–305 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A.J. Moreira, R.T Valadas, A. de Oliveira Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Networks 3, 131–140, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).
  29. J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.
  30. D. O’Brien, M. Katz, “Optical wireless communications within fourth-generation wireless systems,” Journal of Optical Networking 4, 312–322 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Bilgi, Y. Murat, “Multi-element free-space-optical spherical structures with intermittent connectivity patterns,” in INFOCOM Workshops, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.
  32. M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

2011

J. Rzasa, S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 8162, 81620E (2011).

2009

W. Zhang, S. Hranilovic, C. Shi, “Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 27, 1698–1708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nature Photonics 1, 245–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Epple, “Using a GPS-aided inertial system for coarse-pointing of free-space optical communication terminals,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 630418 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Brien, M. Katz, “Optical wireless communications within fourth-generation wireless systems,” Journal of Optical Networking 4, 312–322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Wolf, D. Kreß, “Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10(2), 8–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

A.J. Moreira, R.T Valadas, A. de Oliveira Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Networks 3, 131–140, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1987

X. Ning, R. Winston, J. O’Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics 26, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akella, J.

M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.S.

I. S. Ansari, M.S. Alouini, F. Yilmaz, “On the performance of hybrid RF and RF/FSO fixed gain dual-hop transmission systems,” in Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, (SIECPC, 2013), pp. 1–6.

Ansari, I. S.

I. S. Ansari, M.S. Alouini, F. Yilmaz, “On the performance of hybrid RF and RF/FSO fixed gain dual-hop transmission systems,” in Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, (SIECPC, 2013), pp. 1–6.

Arnon, S.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Audeh, M.

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bapst, U.

F.R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 1979), pp. 1474–1486.
[CrossRef]

Barry, J.

J. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Springer, 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kahn, J. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 1997), pp. 265–298.
[CrossRef]

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bilgi, M.

M. Bilgi, Y. Murat, “Multi-element free-space-optical spherical structures with intermittent connectivity patterns,” in INFOCOM Workshops, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Borah, D.K.

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

Boucouvalas, A.C.

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

Brandt-Pearce, M.

Y. Tang, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in International Conference on Communications, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3139–3143.

Carruthers, J.

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, P.

L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
[CrossRef]

Chow, C.

C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, H.

H. Chowdhury, M. Katz, “Data download on move in indoor hybrid (radio-optical) WLAN-VLC hotspot coverages,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, (IEEE, 2013), 1–5.

Davis, C. C.

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.C.

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

J. Rzasa, S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 8162, 81620E (2011).

S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Hybrid free space optical/RF networks for tactical operations,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 409–415.

Davis., C. C.

J. Rzasa, M. C. Ertem, C. C. Davis., “Pointing, acquisition, and tracking considerations for mobile directional wireless communications systems,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 88740C (2013).

de Oliveira Duarte, A.

A.J. Moreira, R.T Valadas, A. de Oliveira Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Networks 3, 131–140, 1997.
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desai, A.

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dolezal, F.

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, P.

M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elbatt, T.

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Epple, B.

B. Epple, “Using a GPS-aided inertial system for coarse-pointing of free-space optical communication terminals,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 630418 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ertem, M. C.

J. Rzasa, M. C. Ertem, C. C. Davis., “Pointing, acquisition, and tracking considerations for mobile directional wireless communications systems,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 88740C (2013).

Gfeller, F.R.

F.R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 1979), pp. 1474–1486.
[CrossRef]

Greco, J.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Green, R.J.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Grubor, J.

J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Grubor, Jelena

Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, T.

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hranilovic, S.

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

W. Zhang, S. Hranilovic, C. Shi, “Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 27, 1698–1708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Izadpanah, H.

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jivkova, S.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Kahn, J.

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kahn, J. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 1997), pp. 265–298.
[CrossRef]

Kalliojarvi, K.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Kalyanaraman, S.

M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

D. O’Brien, M. Katz, “Optical wireless communications within fourth-generation wireless systems,” Journal of Optical Networking 4, 312–322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

H. Chowdhury, M. Katz, “Data download on move in indoor hybrid (radio-optical) WLAN-VLC hotspot coverages,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, (IEEE, 2013), 1–5.

Klodzy, P.

L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
[CrossRef]

Komine, T.

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, T.

J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Krause, W.

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, D.

M. Wolf, D. Kreß, “Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10(2), 8–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kukshya, V.

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langer, K.

J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Langer, Klaus-Dieter

Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.C.J.

J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Liu, Y.

C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Llorca, J.

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Majumdar, A.K.

A.K. Majumdar, J.C. Ricklin, Free-space Laser Communications: Principles and Advances (Springer, 2008, vol. 2).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, G.

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Michael, S.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Milner, S.

J. Rzasa, S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 8162, 81620E (2011).

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Hybrid free space optical/RF networks for tactical operations,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 409–415.

Moreira, A.J.

A.J. Moreira, R.T Valadas, A. de Oliveira Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Networks 3, 131–140, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Murat, Y.

M. Bilgi, Y. Murat, “Multi-element free-space-optical spherical structures with intermittent connectivity patterns,” in INFOCOM Workshops, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

Murphy, R.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Nakagawa, M.

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ning, X.

X. Ning, R. Winston, J. O’Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics 26, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowak, G. A.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

O’Brien, D.

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nature Photonics 1, 245–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Brien, M. Katz, “Optical wireless communications within fourth-generation wireless systems,” Journal of Optical Networking 4, 312–322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Gallagher, J.

X. Ning, R. Winston, J. O’Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics 26, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

OBrien, D.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Parenti, R.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Parry, G.

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nature Photonics 1, 245–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Phillips, R.

L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Randel, Sebastian

Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J.C.

A.K. Majumdar, J.C. Ricklin, Free-space Laser Communications: Principles and Advances (Springer, 2008, vol. 2).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Ryu, B. K.

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rzasa, J.

J. Rzasa, S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 8162, 81620E (2011).

J. Rzasa, M. C. Ertem, C. C. Davis., “Pointing, acquisition, and tracking considerations for mobile directional wireless communications systems,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 88740C (2013).

Shi, C.

W. Zhang, S. Hranilovic, C. Shi, “Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 27, 1698–1708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

M. Shur, R. Zukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1691–1703.
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P.

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nature Photonics 1, 245–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stotts, L.

L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in International Conference on Communications, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3139–3143.

Taylor, J.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Trisno, S.

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valadas, R.T

A.J. Moreira, R.T Valadas, A. de Oliveira Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Networks 3, 131–140, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Walewski, J.

J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Walewski, Joachim W

Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walther, F.G.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Wang, P.

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

Wilcox, W.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

Winston, R.

X. Ning, R. Winston, J. O’Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics 26, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, D. Kreß, “Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10(2), 8–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yiannopoulos, K.

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

Yilmaz, F.

I. S. Ansari, M.S. Alouini, F. Yilmaz, “On the performance of hybrid RF and RF/FSO fixed gain dual-hop transmission systems,” in Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, (SIECPC, 2013), pp. 1–6.

Young, D.

L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
[CrossRef]

Yuksel, M.

M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, S. Hranilovic, C. Shi, “Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 27, 1698–1708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zukauskas, R.

M. Shur, R. Zukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1691–1703.
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

X. Ning, R. Winston, J. O’Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics 26, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking

D.K. Borah, A.C. Boucouvalas, C.C. Davis, S. Hranilovic, K. Yiannopoulos, “A review of communication-oriented optical wireless systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1, 1–28 (2012).

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

W. Zhang, S. Hranilovic, C. Shi, “Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 27, 1698–1708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Journal

C. Chow, C. Yeh, Y. Liu, P. Huang, “Mitigation of optical background noise in light-emitting diode (LED) optical wireless communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5, 7900307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Wireless Communications

M. Wolf, D. Kreß, “Short-range wireless infrared transmission: the link budget compared to RF,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10(2), 8–14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Izadpanah, T. Elbatt, V. Kukshya, F. Dolezal, B. K. Ryu, “High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications 10, 45–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Jelena Grubor, Sebastian Randel, Klaus-Dieter Langer, Joachim W Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 26, 3883–3892 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Optical Networking

D. O’Brien, M. Katz, “Optical wireless communications within fourth-generation wireless systems,” Journal of Optical Networking 4, 312–322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nature Photonics 3, 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nature Photonics 1, 245–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. Ho, S. Trisno, A. Desai, J. Llorca, S. Milner, C. C. Davis, “Performance and analysis of reconfigurable hybrid FSO/RF wireless networks,” Proc. SPIE 119, 119–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Epple, “Using a GPS-aided inertial system for coarse-pointing of free-space optical communication terminals,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 630418 (2006).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications

J. Rzasa, S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 8162, 81620E (2011).

Wireless Networks

A.J. Moreira, R.T Valadas, A. de Oliveira Duarte, “Optical interference produced by artificial light,” Wireless Networks 3, 131–140, 1997.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuksel, J. Akella, S. Kalyanaraman, P. Dutta, “Free-space-optical mobile ad hoc networks: Auto-configurable building blocks,” Wireless Networks 15(3), 295–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

F.R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 1979), pp. 1474–1486.
[CrossRef]

J. Kahn, J. Barry, M. Audeh, J. Carruthers, W. Krause, G. Marsh, “Non-directed infrared links for high-capacity wireless LANs,” IEEE Personal Communications1, 12–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. OBrien, M. Katz, P. Wang, K. Kalliojarvi, S. Arnon, M. Matsumoto, R.J. Green, S. Jivkova, “Short-range optical wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum, 1–22 (2005).

J. Grubor, S.C.J. Lee, K. Langer, T. Koonen, J. Walewski, “Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs,” in European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers, (ECOC, 2008), pp. 1–2.

J. Kahn, J. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 1997), pp. 265–298.
[CrossRef]

M. Bilgi, Y. Murat, “Multi-element free-space-optical spherical structures with intermittent connectivity patterns,” in INFOCOM Workshops, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–4.

F.G. Walther, G. A. Nowak, S. Michael, R. Parenti, J. Roth, J. Taylor, W. Wilcox, R. Murphy, J. Greco, J. Peters et al., “Air-to-ground lasercom system demonstration,” in Military Comm. Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1594–1600.

J. Rzasa, M. C. Ertem, C. C. Davis., “Pointing, acquisition, and tracking considerations for mobile directional wireless communications systems,” SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 88740C (2013).

A.K. Majumdar, J.C. Ricklin, Free-space Laser Communications: Principles and Advances (Springer, 2008, vol. 2).
[CrossRef]

H. Chowdhury, M. Katz, “Data download on move in indoor hybrid (radio-optical) WLAN-VLC hotspot coverages,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, (IEEE, 2013), 1–5.

J. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Springer, 1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stotts, P. Cherry, P. Klodzy, R. Phillips, D. Young, “Hybrid optical RF airborne communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1109–1127.
[CrossRef]

S. Milner, C.C. Davis, “Hybrid free space optical/RF networks for tactical operations,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2004), pp. 409–415.

Y. Tang, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Link allocation, routing and scheduling of FSO augmented RF wireless mesh networks,” in International Conference on Communications, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3139–3143.

I. S. Ansari, M.S. Alouini, F. Yilmaz, “On the performance of hybrid RF and RF/FSO fixed gain dual-hop transmission systems,” in Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, (SIECPC, 2013), pp. 1–6.

M. Shur, R. Zukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: toward superior illumination,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1691–1703.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of an optical link with an LED transmitter and photodiode (PD) receiver. The transmitter beam is described by its half-power half-beamwidth Φ1/2 and its pointing error ϕ. A distance d separates the transmitter and receiver. In this model, the field of view of the receiver is defined by the concentrator half-angle Ψc. The receiver pointing error is ψ. In this diagram, the angles described by ϕ and ψ are coplanar, but the derived link model is generally valid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of beacon-link coverage range and the primary link beamwidth. A receiver positioned in the angular range |ϕb| ≤ θa is guaranteed a beacon connection (BbBb0) if its range is less than or equal to d0. The beacon beamwidth is Φ1/2,b (not shown), while the primary link beamwidth is Φ1/2,p.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial maps of beacon-link bit rates, with diagrams of receiver geometries for (a) perfect receiver alignment (ψb = 0) and (b) poor receiver alignment (ψb = 45°). In both cases, θa is chosen to be 45°, and the concentrator field of view Ψc,b is chosen to match θa (i.e., Ψc,b = θa = 45°). The LED transmitter is assumed to be at (X,Y)=(0,0) and pointing in the positive Y-direction. The contours represent the logarithm of the bit rate in bits/s. For example, “3” represents Bb = 1 kb/s. The calculations assume Pb = 0.3 W, 2θa = 90°, pbg = 5.8 μW/nm/cm2, Δλb = 100 nm, R = 0.6 A/W, n = 1.5, Ab = 1 cm2, Ts,b = Tn,b = 0.8, and BER = 10−4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plot of the range d0 of the beacon link as a function of beacon transmitter power Pb for several values of 2θa, and for receiver orientations ψb = 0 and ψb = θa. The three colors correspond to three values of 2θa: blue (2θa = 90°), green (2θa = 60°) and red (2θa = 40°). Unless stated otherwise, other parameter values are the same as those used in Fig. 3. (b) Plot of data rates Bp of the primary link as a function of Pp/Pb, assuming perfect primary-transmitter pointing (ϕp = 0) and perfect primary-receiver alignment (ψp = 0). The color-coding used here is the same as in (a). Three curves (one of each pair) correspond to to a narrow beamwidth of Φ1/2,p = 10°, and three curves correspond to Φ1/2,p = 20°. In this plot we assume that the primary link detector area is Ap = 1 mm2 and that the primary link concentrator field-of-view half-angle is 5° for all curves.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I s ( d , ϕ ) = P m + 1 2 π cos m ( ϕ ) / d 2 .
m = ( ln 2 ) / ln [ cos ( Φ 1 / 2 ) ] .
P Rx = I s A eff ,
I p = RP Rx .
A eff ( ψ ) = g ( ψ ) T s ( ψ ) A cos ( ψ ) .
g ( ψ ) = { n 2 / sin 2 ( Ψ c ) , if | ψ | Ψ c 0 , if | ψ | > Ψ c .
P n = p bg Δ λ T n A n 2 .
σ shot 2 = 2 q RP n B .
SNR = I p 2 σ shot 2 = ( RP Rx ) 2 σ shot 2 .
BER = Q ( SNR ) ,
B = R 2 P Rx 2 2 q RP n [ Q 1 ( BER ) ] 2 .
d = ( 1 2 q RP n B ) 1 / 4 [ RA eff P ( m + 1 ) cos m ( ϕ ) 2 π Q 1 ( BER ) ] 1 / 2 .
m b = 1 1 / ln [ cos ( θ a ) ] ,
Φ 1 / 2 , b = cos 1 [ exp ( ln 2 m b ) ] .
B p B b = ( T s , p ( ψ p ) T s , b ( ψ b ) ) 2 ( P p P b ) 2 ( m p + 1 m b + 1 ) 2 ( A p A b ) 2 [ cos m p ( ϕ p ) cos m b ( ϕ b ) ] 2 [ cos ( ψ p ) cos ( ψ b ) ] 2 ( Δ λ b Δ λ p ) [ sin ( ψ b , c ) sin ( ψ p , c ) ] 2 .

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