Abstract

Despite their tremendous contribution to biomedical research and diagnosis, conventional spatial sampling techniques such as wide-field, point scanning or selective plane illumination microscopy face inherent limiting trade-offs between spatial resolution, field-of-view, phototoxicity and recording speed. Several of these trade-offs are the result of spatial sampling with diffracting beams. Here, we introduce a new strategy for fluorescence imaging, SWIF, which instead encodes the axial profile of a sample in the Fourier domain. We demonstrate how this can be achieved with propagation-invariant illumination patterns that extend over several millimeters and robustly propagate through layers of varying refractive index. This enabled us to image a lateral field-of-view of 0.8 mm x 1.5 mm with an axial resolution of 2.4 µm – greatly exceeding the lateral field-of-view of conventional illumination techniques (~100 µm) at comparable resolution. Thus, SWIF allowed us to surpass the limitations of diffracting illumination beams and untangle lateral field-of-view from resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tomer, K. Khairy, F. Amat, P. J. Keller, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 755–763 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Fahrbach, A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun 3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, “Optical sectioning microscopy with planar or structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 811–819 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Selective plane illumination microscopy techniques in developmental biology,” Development 136(12), 1963–1975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. J. Keller, A. D. Schmidt, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy,” Science 322(5904), 1065–1069 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Even fluorescence excitation by multidirectional selective plane illumination microscopy (mSPIM),” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2608–2610 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Cathey, E. R. Dowski, “New paradigm for imaging systems,” Appl. Opt. 41(29), 6080–6092 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, “Extended depth of field through wave-front coding,” Appl. Opt. 34(11), 1859–1866 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, F. Lanni, “Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,” Nature 366(6450), 44–48 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. M. Herman, T. A. Wiggins, “Production and uses of diffractionless beams,” JOSA A 8(6), 932–942 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

H. Siedentopf, R. Zsigmondy, “Über Sichtbarmachung und Größenbestimmung ultramikoskopischer Teilchen, mit besonderer Anwendung auf Goldrubingläser,” Annalen der Physik 315(1), 1–39 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amat, F.

R. Tomer, K. Khairy, F. Amat, P. J. Keller, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 755–763 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

Bailey, B.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, F. Lanni, “Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,” Nature 366(6450), 44–48 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cathey, W. T.

Choi, J. M.

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M.

Davidson, M. W.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deininger, K.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Bene, F.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deussing, J. M.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodt, H.-U.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowski, E. R.

Eder, M.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fahrbach, F. O.

F. O. Fahrbach, A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun 3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 780–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D. L.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, F. Lanni, “Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,” Nature 366(6450), 44–48 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldkhun, D.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Footer, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galbraith, C. G.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galbraith, J. A.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, B.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunther, S.

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, R. M.

R. M. Herman, T. A. Wiggins, “Production and uses of diffractionless beams,” JOSA A 8(6), 932–942 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, C. D.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hufnagel, L.

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huisken, J.

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Selective plane illumination microscopy techniques in developmental biology,” Development 136(12), 1963–1975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Even fluorescence excitation by multidirectional selective plane illumination microscopy (mSPIM),” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2608–2610 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Jährling, N.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, P. J.

R. Tomer, K. Khairy, F. Amat, P. J. Keller, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 755–763 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Keller, A. D. Schmidt, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy,” Science 322(5904), 1065–1069 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khairy, K.

R. Tomer, K. Khairy, F. Amat, P. J. Keller, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 755–763 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koos, D. S.

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krzic, U.

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanni, F.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, F. Lanni, “Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,” Nature 366(6450), 44–48 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leischner, U.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Mauch, C. P.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

J. Mertz, “Optical sectioning microscopy with planar or structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 811–819 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milkie, D. E.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, R.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palero, J.

Peifer, M.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planchon, T. A.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulton, J. S.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohrbach, A.

F. O. Fahrbach, A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun 3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 780–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S. I. C. O.

Sarunic, M.

Saunders, T. E.

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schierloh, A.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, A. D.

P. J. Keller, A. D. Schmidt, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy,” Science 322(5904), 1065–1069 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, L.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siedentopf, H.

H. Siedentopf, R. Zsigmondy, “Über Sichtbarmachung und Größenbestimmung ultramikoskopischer Teilchen, mit besonderer Anwendung auf Goldrubingläser,” Annalen der Physik 315(1), 1–39 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 780–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stainier, D. Y. R.

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Selective plane illumination microscopy techniques in developmental biology,” Development 136(12), 1963–1975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Even fluorescence excitation by multidirectional selective plane illumination microscopy (mSPIM),” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2608–2610 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

P. J. Keller, A. D. Schmidt, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy,” Science 322(5904), 1065–1069 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streichan, S. J.

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supatto, W.

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swoger, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. L.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, F. Lanni, “Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,” Nature 366(6450), 44–48 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomer, R.

R. Tomer, K. Khairy, F. Amat, P. J. Keller, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 755–763 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truong, T. V.

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, K. H.

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R. M. Herman, T. A. Wiggins, “Production and uses of diffractionless beams,” JOSA A 8(6), 932–942 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wittbrodt, J.

P. J. Keller, A. D. Schmidt, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy,” Science 322(5904), 1065–1069 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Zieglgänsberger, W.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zsigmondy, R.

H. Siedentopf, R. Zsigmondy, “Über Sichtbarmachung und Größenbestimmung ultramikoskopischer Teilchen, mit besonderer Anwendung auf Goldrubingläser,” Annalen der Physik 315(1), 1–39 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Acm T Graphic (1)

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” Acm T Graphic 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Annalen der Physik (1)

H. Siedentopf, R. Zsigmondy, “Über Sichtbarmachung und Größenbestimmung ultramikoskopischer Teilchen, mit besonderer Anwendung auf Goldrubingläser,” Annalen der Physik 315(1), 1–39 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Cell (1)

L. Gao, L. Shao, C. D. Higgins, J. S. Poulton, M. Peifer, M. W. Davidson, X. Wu, B. Goldstein, E. Betzig, “Noninvasive imaging beyond the diffraction limit of 3D dynamics in thickly fluorescent specimens,” Cell 151(6), 1370–1385 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Development (1)

J. Huisken, D. Y. R. Stainier, “Selective plane illumination microscopy techniques in developmental biology,” Development 136(12), 1963–1975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JOSA A (1)

R. M. Herman, T. A. Wiggins, “Production and uses of diffractionless beams,” JOSA A 8(6), 932–942 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

F. O. Fahrbach, A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat Commun 3, 632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (6)

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 417–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Truong, W. Supatto, D. S. Koos, J. M. Choi, S. E. Fraser, “Deep and fast live imaging with two-photon scanned light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(9), 757–760 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, “Optical sectioning microscopy with planar or structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 811–819 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. J. Streichan, L. Hufnagel, “Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 730–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tomer, K. Khairy, F. Amat, P. J. Keller, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 755–763 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 780–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, F. Lanni, “Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,” Nature 366(6450), 44–48 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

P. J. Keller, A. D. Schmidt, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy,” Science 322(5904), 1065–1069 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Minsky, “Microscopy Apparatus,” U.S. patent US 3013467 A (December 19, 1961).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (3799 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (6504 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (4564 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (945 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of SWIF: a: Schematic of conventional epifluorescence imaging, which suffers from poor axial resolution (hourglass-shaped and elongated focus along z). b: Sheet-illumination restricts the axial (z) extent of illumination. c: However, there is an inherent trade-off between sheet thickness and lateral extent of the sheet (here shown for Gaussian sheets). d: SWIF overcomes this limiting trade-off by encoding the axial profile of the sample in the spatial frequency-domain. Two collimated laser beams intersect at varying angles and generate a sinusoidal illumination profile (along the z-axis) with varying spatial frequency. e: Schematic of the difference between spatial sampling with diffracting sheets and Fourier-domain sampling with propagation-invariant illumination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Robustness of illumination pattern: The SWIF illumination pattern extends over several mm and is robust against layers of varying refractive index (here illustrated by illuminating a hydrogel inside a 5 mm wide cuvette through 1 mm thick glass walls). Left: side-view (xz-plane) photographs, Right: schematic illustrating that the illumination pattern does not change as it crosses flat interfaces between media of different refractive indices (air-glass-water/hydrogel).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparing illumination patterns: a: Fluorescence image of a Gaussian beam focussed into a cuvette containing the fluorophore Rhod-6G. Z-axis profiles at different locations along the beam (indicated by colored dotted lines on the left) are shown on the right. b: Illumination patterns obtained by frequency-swept standing wave illumination shown for 4 example spatial frequencies (stacked images). c: Fourier-transform (along the spatial frequency dimension) of the data set represented in b and profiles at different x-positions (right) traces are offset for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantifying axial resolution: a: Fluorescence image of 1 µm beads (0.8 mm x 1.6 mm). b: Real (solid) and imaginary (dotted) component calculated from the fluorescence signal (a.u.) of a bead (green circle in a) as the spatial frequency of illumination is swept from 0 to 0.25 µm-1. c: Fourier-transform of the signal in b, resulting in the axial profile of the bead with a point-spread function approximated by a sinc-function (fit). d: calculated axial profiles for the remaining indicated beads in a, illustrating the uniformity of illumination across a large field-of-view.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging a starfish embryo: a: Fluorescence image of a starfish embryo. b: complex-valued image (C(x,y,f) in Eq. (1)) obtained for one of the illumination spatial frequencies. The color of each pixel indicates the measured phase, the luminance the amplitude. c and d: starfish z-sections obtained by FFT using SWIF. e: side view of the same data set. f: projection along the X-axis. g: 3D rendering.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C( x,y,f )=( I f,0 I f,π )+i( 2 I f, π 2 I f,0 I f,π )
S ( x,y,z )= φ f max C( x,y,f ) e i2πfz

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