Abstract

We report on a newly built laser-based tabletop setup which enables generation of femtosecond light pulses in the XUV range employing the process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a gas medium. The spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the XUV beam are presented. Monochromatization of XUV light with minimum temporal pulse distortion is the central issue of this work. Off-center reflection zone plates are shown to be advantageous when selection of a desired harmonic is carried out with the use of a single optical element. A cross correlation technique was applied to characterize the performance of the zone plates in the time domain. By using laser pulses of 25 fs length to pump the HHG process, a pulse duration of 45 fs for monochromatized harmonics was achieved in the present setup.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

C. Grazioli, C. Callegari, A. Ciavardini, M. Coreno, F. Frassetto, D. Gauthier, D. Golob, R. Ivanov, A. Kivimäki, B. Mahieu, B. Bučar, M. Merhar, P. Miotti, L. Poletto, E. Polo, B. Ressel, C. Spezzani, G. De Ninno, “An infrared-extreme ultraviolet light source for fundamental and applied ultrafast science,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 85,023104 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Fröhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synch. Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibek, T. Leitner, A. Erko, A. Firsov, P. Wernet, “Monochromatizing and focussing femtosecond high-order harmonic radiation with one optical element,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 84,103102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Kothe, J. Metje, M. Wilke, A. Moguilevski, N. Engel, R. Al-Obaidi, C. Richter, R. Golnak, I. Yu. Kiyan, E. F. Aziz, “Time-of-flight electron spectrometer for a broad range of kinetic energies,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 84,023106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, Ph. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 1–4 (2013).

A. Tehlar, H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy of the photodissociation of CH3I and CF3I,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2057–2067 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Hosler, S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88,023420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Gierz, J. C. Petersen, M. Mitrano, C. Cacho, I. C. E. Turcu, E. Springate, A. Stöhr, A. Köhler, U. Starke, A. Cavalleri, “Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene,” Nature Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Reininger, D. J. Keavney, M. Borland, L. Young, “Optical design of the short pulse soft X-ray spectroscopy beamline at the advanced photon source,” J. Synch. Rad. 20, 654–659 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. Billaud, M. Géléoc, Y. J. Picard, K. Veyrinas, J. F. Hergott, S. Marggi Poullain, P. Breger, T. Ruchon, M. Roulliay, F. Delmotte, F. Lepetit, A. Huetz, B. Carré, D. Dowek, “Molecular frame photoemission in dissociative ionization of H-2 and D-2 induced by high harmonic generation femtosecond XUV pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45,194013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Igarashi, A. Makida, M. Ito, T. Sekikawa, “Pulse compression of phase-matched high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator,” Opt. Express 20, 3725–3732 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. Wernet, J. Gaudin, K. Godehusen, O. Schwarzkopf, W. Eberhardt, “Femtosecond time-resolved photo-electron spectroscopy with a vacuum-ultraviolet photon source based on laser high-order harmonic generation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82,063114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Frassetto, C. Cacho, C. A. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, P. Villoresi, W. A. Bryan, E. Springate, L. Poletto, “Single-grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 19169–19181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, M. Wiesenmayer, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, B. Slomski, A. Carr, Y. Liu, L. M. Avila, M. Kalläne, S. Mathias, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, “Collapse of long-range charge order tracked by time-resolved photoemission at high momenta,” Nature 471, 490–494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ahr, M. Chollet, B. Adams, E. M. Lunny, C. M. Laperle, C. Rose-Petruck, “Picosecond X-ray absorption measurements of the ligand substitution dynamics of Fe(CO)5 in ethanol,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 5590–5595 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Faubel, K. R. Siefermann, Y. Liu, B. Abel, “Ultrafast soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid water microjets,” Accounts Chem. Res. 45, 120–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134,02313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frasetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80,123109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, W. Eberhardt, “Real-Time Evolution of the Valence Electronic Structure in a Dissociating Molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103,013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Dilanian, B. Chen, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, S. Teichmann, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, A. G. Peele, “Diffractive imaging using a polychromatic high-harmonic generation soft-x-ray source,” J. App. Phys. 106,023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79,063829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. App. Phys. 104,033112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft X-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 105, 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A. Azima, H. Redlin, J. Feldhaus, J. Dardis, K. Kavanagh, H. Luna, J. Pedregosa Gutierrez, P. Yeates, E. T. Kennedy, J. T. Costello, A. Delserieys, C. L. S. Lewis, “Single-shot characterization of independent femtosecond extreme ultraviolet free electron and infrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90,131108 (2007).

2006

J. Hüve, T. Haarlammert, T. Steinbrück, J. Kutzner, G. Tsilimis, H. Zacharias, “High-flux high harmonic soft X-ray generation up to 10 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 266, 261–265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Firsov, A. I. Erko, A. Svintsov, “Design and fabrication of the diffractive X-ray optics at BESSY,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 160–164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Limão-Vieira, S. Eden, P. A. Kendall, N. J. Mason, A. Giuliani, J. Heinesch, M.-J. Hubin-Franskin, J. Delwich, S. V. Hoffmann, “An experimental study of SF5CF3 by electron energy loss spectroscopy, VUV photo-absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy,” Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 233, 335–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft X-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 73,1875 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Siffalovic, M. Drescher, M. Spiewec, T. Wiesenthal, Y. C. Lim, R. Weidner, A. Elizarov, U. Heinzmann, “Laser-based apparatus for extended ultraviolet femtosecond time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 30–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87,193002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, M. Lewenstein, “Generation of ultrashort coherent XUV pulses by harmonic conversion of intense laser pulses in gases: towards attosecond pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12,1818 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Yu. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “2-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

Yu. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. E. Yakshin, “Grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plate for X-ray focusing,” Opt. Commun. 109, 324–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

N. B. Delone, S. P. Goreslavsky, V. P. Krainov, “Quasiclassical dipole matrix elements for atomic continuum states,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 22, 2941–2945 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko, V. V. Martynov, “Principles of Bragg-Fresnel multilayer optics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1623–1630 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

V. V. Aristov, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Genkin, Yu. A. Goratov, A. I. Erko, V. V. Martynov, L. A. Matveev, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Fraerman, “Focusing properties of shaped multilayer mirrors,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 44, 265–267 (1986).

Abel, B.

M. Faubel, K. R. Siefermann, Y. Liu, B. Abel, “Ultrafast soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid water microjets,” Accounts Chem. Res. 45, 120–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Siefermann, Y. Liu, E. Lugovoy, O. Link, M. Faubel, U. Buck, B. Winter, B. Abel, “Binding energies, lifetimes and implications of bulk and interface solvated electrons in water,” Nature Chem. 2, 274–279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adams, B.

B. Ahr, M. Chollet, B. Adams, E. M. Lunny, C. M. Laperle, C. Rose-Petruck, “Picosecond X-ray absorption measurements of the ligand substitution dynamics of Fe(CO)5 in ethanol,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 5590–5595 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

Ahr, B.

B. Ahr, M. Chollet, B. Adams, E. M. Lunny, C. M. Laperle, C. Rose-Petruck, “Picosecond X-ray absorption measurements of the ligand substitution dynamics of Fe(CO)5 in ethanol,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 5590–5595 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the experimental setup. Notations: (I) Iris aperture, (W) wave plate, (L) lens, (DP) differential pumping stage, (A) aperture, (F) Al foil, (ZP) zone plate, (S) slit, (P) movable photodiode, (TM) toroidal mirror, (M) movable plane mirror, (D) position-sensitive detector, (TOF) time-of-flight electron spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical layout of the spectrometric element - reflection zone plate. The area of use is shown by deep blue color. See text for notations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity distribution of XUV light in the slit plane. The image is recorded with the use of the zone plate designed to select the 21st harmonic. The large spot on the right hand side represents the unfocused specular reflex. The spots in the first diffraction order are labeled according to the HHG orders.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Kinetic energy spectrum of photoelectrons generated by ionization of Ar with the use of the monochromatized 21st harmonic. The solid curve represents a fit of the measured spectrum to a sum of two Gaussian profiles associated with the spin-orbit structure of the residual Ar+ ion. The inset displays a comparison of two photoelectron spectra recorded with a slit size of 100 μm and with an open slit, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission efficiency of zone plates in the first diffraction order with a profile depth of 58 nm. The design energies of the zone plates used to select the 17th, the 21st, and the 25th harmonics are indicated by arrows. The results are obtained with the use of the software REFLEC [40].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IR-assisted ionization of Ar by XUV light of the 21st harmonic. Series of photo-electron energy spectra are recorded at different time delays between the XUV and the IR pulses. The IR peak intensity is in the order of 1.7 × 1012 W/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Integrated cross-correlation signal in the third sideband (circles). The solid line represents a Gaussian fit to the experimental data points. The inset shows a comparison of the integrated signals of the first, the second, and the third sideband, demonstrating the convergence of the cross correlation temporal width with the increase of the sideband number.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The energy resolution and geometrical parameters of the HHG setup.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of individual ZPs. d, d1, and d2 are the meridional structure periods in the geometrical center, at the low-density edge, and at the high-density edge of ZP’s sections, respectively.

Equations (7)

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Δ E Δ x = E 2 d sin β h c R 2 ,
Δ x > Δ S / M .
d = λ sin α [ ( 1 + cot 2 α + ( R 2 Δ x Δ E E ) 2 ) 1 2 cot α ] ,
E kin = ω XUV + N ω IR E 0 ,
S N ( τ ) + I XUV ( t ) I IR | N | ( t τ ) d t .
S N ( τ ) exp ( τ 2 / τ N 2 ) ,
τ N 2 = τ XUV 2 + τ IR 2 | N | .

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