Abstract

We have fabricated a waveguide integrated monolithic silicon infrared detector. The photodiode consists of a p-i-n junction across a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide. Absorption is due to surface-states at the silicon/air interface of the waveguide. A 2 mm long detector shows a response of 0.045 A/W (calculated as a function of coupled light) and is capable of operation at 10 Gb/s at a reverse bias voltage of 2 V.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

2011

R. Beausoleil, “Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. 7(2), Article 6 (2011).

2010

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. B. Sproul, “Dimensionless solution of the equation describing the effect of surface recombination on carrier decay in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(5), 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J. J.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R.

R. Beausoleil, “Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. 7(2), Article 6 (2011).

Bergman, K.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, M.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cartledge, J. C.

Cheben, P.

Chen, C. P.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Dell’Olio, F.

Densmore, A.

Ding, H.

Driscoll, J. B.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

Gilmour, M.

Grein, M. E.

Grillanda, S.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Grote, R. R.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Janz, S.

Jessop, P. E.

Karar, A. S.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Lee, C.

Lennon, D. M.

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. Y.

Logan, D. F.

Logan, S. M.

Lopinski, G.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Ma, R.

Mackenzie, R.

McIntosh, H.

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mozenson, O.

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, N.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padmaraju, K.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paez, D. J.

Passaro, V. M.

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Sabourin, N.

Sampietro, M.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, W.

Sorel, M.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Souhan, B.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Sproul, A. B.

A. B. Sproul, “Dimensionless solution of the equation describing the effect of surface recombination on carrier decay in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(5), 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strain, M. J.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tabor, H.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thillaigovindan, J.

Vachon, M.

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Xu, D. X.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Yoon, J. U.

Zhang, D.

Zhu, X.

ACM J. Emerg. Technol

R. Beausoleil, “Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. 7(2), Article 6 (2011).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. B. Sproul, “Dimensionless solution of the equation describing the effect of surface recombination on carrier decay in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(5), 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phot.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ackert, A. S. Karar, D. J. Paez, P. E. Jessop, J. C. Cartledge, A. P. Knights, “10 Gbps silicon waveguide-integrated infrared avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19530–19537 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, N. Sabourin, P. Cheben, H. McIntosh, H. Ding, S. Wang, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, A. Densmore, R. Ma, W. Sinclair, S. M. Logan, R. Mackenzie, Q. Y. Liu, D. Zhang, G. Lopinski, O. Mozenson, M. Gilmour, H. Tabor, “Photonic wire biosensor microarray chip and instrumentation with application to serotyping of Escherichia coli isolates,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4623–4637 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, “Photodetection in silicon beyond the band edge with surface states,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1659–1668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope images of the surface state detector. (a) A top view of the waveguide exposed through the oxide, with metal contacts on either side. (b) A cross section taken with a focused ion beam, the vertical dimension has been corrected for tilt.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The current voltage characteristic for a 2 mm long surface state photodetector and a 1 mm device without the oxide opening step. The oxide opening greatly enhances the response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A 10 Gb/s eye diagram for a 2 mm long diode with a reverse bias voltage of 2 V (a) and 10 V (b), the timescale is 20 ps/division.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photodiode current versus optical power coupled into the silicon waveguide. The photodiode shows a linear response over the measured range when dark current is subtracted.

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