Abstract

We have fabricated a waveguide integrated monolithic silicon infrared detector. The photodiode consists of a p-i-n junction across a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide. Absorption is due to surface-states at the silicon/air interface of the waveguide. A 2 mm long detector shows a response of 0.045 A/W (calculated as a function of coupled light) and is capable of operation at 10 Gb/s at a reverse bias voltage of 2 V.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. J. Ackert, A. S. Karar, D. J. Paez, P. E. Jessop, J. C. Cartledge, A. P. Knights, “10 Gbps silicon waveguide-integrated infrared avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19530–19537 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2011 (1)

R. Beausoleil, “Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. 7(2), Article 6 (2011).

2010 (3)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. B. Sproul, “Dimensionless solution of the equation describing the effect of surface recombination on carrier decay in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(5), 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J. J.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R.

R. Beausoleil, “Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. 7(2), Article 6 (2011).

Bergman, K.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, M.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cartledge, J. C.

Cheben, P.

Chen, C. P.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Dell’Olio, F.

Densmore, A.

Ding, H.

Driscoll, J. B.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

Gilmour, M.

Grein, M. E.

Grillanda, S.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Grote, R. R.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Janz, S.

Jessop, P. E.

Karar, A. S.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Lee, C.

Lennon, D. M.

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. Y.

Logan, D. F.

Logan, S. M.

Lopinski, G.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Ma, R.

Mackenzie, R.

McIntosh, H.

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mozenson, O.

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, N.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padmaraju, K.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paez, D. J.

Passaro, V. M.

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Sabourin, N.

Sampietro, M.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, W.

Sorel, M.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Souhan, B.

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Sproul, A. B.

A. B. Sproul, “Dimensionless solution of the equation describing the effect of surface recombination on carrier decay in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(5), 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strain, M. J.

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tabor, H.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thillaigovindan, J.

Vachon, M.

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Xu, D. X.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Yoon, J. U.

Zhang, D.

Zhu, X.

ACM J. Emerg. Technol (1)

R. Beausoleil, “Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. 7(2), Article 6 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent in p-i-n embedded silicon microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, M. Carminati, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, A. Melloni, “Non-Invasive on-chip light observation by contactless waveguide conductivity monitoring,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201710 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Grote, K. Padmaraju, B. Souhan, J. B. Driscoll, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood., “10 Gb/s error-free operation of all-silicon ion-implanted-waveguide photodiodes at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Souhan, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, R. M. Osgood, “Error free operation of an all-Si waveguide photodiode at 1.9 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2031–2034 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. B. Sproul, “Dimensionless solution of the equation describing the effect of surface recombination on carrier decay in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(5), 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phot. (2)

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nature Phot. 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ackert, A. S. Karar, D. J. Paez, P. E. Jessop, J. C. Cartledge, A. P. Knights, “10 Gbps silicon waveguide-integrated infrared avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19530–19537 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, N. Sabourin, P. Cheben, H. McIntosh, H. Ding, S. Wang, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, A. Densmore, R. Ma, W. Sinclair, S. M. Logan, R. Mackenzie, Q. Y. Liu, D. Zhang, G. Lopinski, O. Mozenson, M. Gilmour, H. Tabor, “Photonic wire biosensor microarray chip and instrumentation with application to serotyping of Escherichia coli isolates,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4623–4637 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, “Photodetection in silicon beyond the band edge with surface states,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1659–1668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope images of the surface state detector. (a) A top view of the waveguide exposed through the oxide, with metal contacts on either side. (b) A cross section taken with a focused ion beam, the vertical dimension has been corrected for tilt.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The current voltage characteristic for a 2 mm long surface state photodetector and a 1 mm device without the oxide opening step. The oxide opening greatly enhances the response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A 10 Gb/s eye diagram for a 2 mm long diode with a reverse bias voltage of 2 V (a) and 10 V (b), the timescale is 20 ps/division.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photodiode current versus optical power coupled into the silicon waveguide. The photodiode shows a linear response over the measured range when dark current is subtracted.

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