Abstract

Polymer network in vertical alignment liquid crystal cell driven by in-plane field (VA-IPS) is formed in three dimensions to achieve fast response time and to keep the liquid crystal alignment even when an external pressure is applied to the cell. The network formed by UV irradiation to vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with reactive mesogen does not disturb a dark state while exhibiting very fast decaying response time less than 2ms in all grey scales and almost zero pooling mura. The proposed device has a strong potential to be applicable to field sequential display owing to super-fast response time and flexible display owing to polymer network in bulk which supports a gap between two substrates.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K.-U. Jeong, “Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(24), 11893–11903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, S.-T. Wu, “Correlations between liquid crystal director reorientation and optical response time of a homeotropic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5502–5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, L. C. Chien, “Morphology of Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater. 7(12), 2300–2308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e, K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Field effects in nematic liquid crystals obtained with interdigital electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 5466–5468 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Au, J.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, S. S.

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K.-U. Jeong, “Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(24), 11893–11903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borshch, V.

V. Borshch, J.-Y. Hwang, L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal-directed polymer nanostructure for vertically-aligned nematic cells,” Proc. SPIE7618, 76180V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, L. C.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, L. C. Chien, “Morphology of Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater. 7(12), 2300–2308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.-C.

V. Borshch, J.-Y. Hwang, L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal-directed polymer nanostructure for vertically-aligned nematic cells,” Proc. SPIE7618, 76180V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.-R.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. E.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, T.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, S.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gates, H.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hanaoka, K.

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y, “A new MVA-LCD by polymer sustained alignment technology,” SID Symposium Digest35, 1200–1203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, R.

M. Nishii, R. Sakurai, K. Sugie, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “The Use of Transparent Conductive Polymer for Electrode Materials in Flexible Electronic Paper,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers40, 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sakurai, S. Ohno, S.-I. Kita, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “Color and Flexible Electronic Paper Display using QR-LPD® Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37, 1922–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, G.

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, S. H. Lee, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, S. D.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, L. C. Chien, “Morphology of Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater. 7(12), 2300–2308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-Y.

V. Borshch, J.-Y. Hwang, L.-C. Chien, “Liquid crystal-directed polymer nanostructure for vertically-aligned nematic cells,” Proc. SPIE7618, 76180V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y, “A new MVA-LCD by polymer sustained alignment technology,” SID Symposium Digest35, 1200–1203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Suwa, T. Isozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Nakamura, M. Miyakawa, T. Urabe, “Novel Field-induced Pre-tilt Alignment Technique Using a Photo-reactive Alignment Layer for VA LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers41, 595–598 (2010).

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Isozaki, T.

S. Suwa, T. Isozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Nakamura, M. Miyakawa, T. Urabe, “Novel Field-induced Pre-tilt Alignment Technique Using a Photo-reactive Alignment Layer for VA LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers41, 595–598 (2010).

Jeong, K.-U.

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K.-U. Jeong, “Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(24), 11893–11903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H. S.

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K.-U. Jeong, “Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(24), 11893–11903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H.-S.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B. G.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.-W.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kazlas, P.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-K.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. G.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kita, S.-I.

R. Sakurai, S. Ohno, S.-I. Kita, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “Color and Flexible Electronic Paper Display using QR-LPD® Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37, 1922–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Komitov, L.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, S. H. Lee, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e, K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kundu, S.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K.-U. Jeong, “Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(24), 11893–11903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Komitov, G. Hegde, S. H. Lee, “Fast liquid crystal light shutter,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-W.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lyu, J.-J.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, Y.

M. Nishii, R. Sakurai, K. Sugie, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “The Use of Transparent Conductive Polymer for Electrode Materials in Flexible Electronic Paper,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers40, 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sakurai, S. Ohno, S.-I. Kita, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “Color and Flexible Electronic Paper Display using QR-LPD® Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37, 1922–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCreary, M.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyadera, T.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, M.

S. Suwa, T. Isozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Nakamura, M. Miyakawa, T. Urabe, “Novel Field-induced Pre-tilt Alignment Technique Using a Photo-reactive Alignment Layer for VA LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers41, 595–598 (2010).

Nakamura, M.

S. Suwa, T. Isozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Nakamura, M. Miyakawa, T. Urabe, “Novel Field-induced Pre-tilt Alignment Technique Using a Photo-reactive Alignment Layer for VA LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers41, 595–598 (2010).

Nakanishi, Y.

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y, “A new MVA-LCD by polymer sustained alignment technology,” SID Symposium Digest35, 1200–1203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, M.

M. Nishii, R. Sakurai, K. Sugie, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “The Use of Transparent Conductive Polymer for Electrode Materials in Flexible Electronic Paper,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers40, 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, H.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e, K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, S.

R. Sakurai, S. Ohno, S.-I. Kita, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “Color and Flexible Electronic Paper Display using QR-LPD® Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37, 1922–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. C.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajaram, C. V.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, L. C. Chien, “Morphology of Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater. 7(12), 2300–2308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rho, B. G.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ritenour, A.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakurai, R.

R. Sakurai, S. Ohno, S.-I. Kita, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “Color and Flexible Electronic Paper Display using QR-LPD® Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37, 1922–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishii, R. Sakurai, K. Sugie, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “The Use of Transparent Conductive Polymer for Electrode Materials in Flexible Electronic Paper,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers40, 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasabayashi, T.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Field effects in nematic liquid crystals obtained with interdigital electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 5466–5468 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, K.

M. Nishii, R. Sakurai, K. Sugie, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “The Use of Transparent Conductive Polymer for Electrode Materials in Flexible Electronic Paper,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers40, 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, A.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sukenori, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suwa, S.

S. Suwa, T. Isozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Nakamura, M. Miyakawa, T. Urabe, “Novel Field-induced Pre-tilt Alignment Technique Using a Photo-reactive Alignment Layer for VA LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers41, 595–598 (2010).

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tanuma, S.

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y, “A new MVA-LCD by polymer sustained alignment technology,” SID Symposium Digest35, 1200–1203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tasaka, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, M.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, T.

S. Suwa, T. Isozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Nakamura, M. Miyakawa, T. Urabe, “Novel Field-induced Pre-tilt Alignment Technique Using a Photo-reactive Alignment Layer for VA LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers41, 595–598 (2010).

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, S.-T. Wu, “Correlations between liquid crystal director reorientation and optical response time of a homeotropic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5502–5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, S.-T. Wu, “Correlations between liquid crystal director reorientation and optical response time of a homeotropic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5502–5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. X.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, S.-T. Wu, “Correlations between liquid crystal director reorientation and optical response time of a homeotropic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5502–5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, A.

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, H. Sukenori, T. Fujikawa, “Fast-Switching LCD with Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment Driven by an Oblique Electric Field,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yun, Y. K.

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, S.-T. Wu, “Correlations between liquid crystal director reorientation and optical response time of a homeotropic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5502–5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

M. Oh-e, K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, L. C. Chien, “Morphology of Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater. 7(12), 2300–2308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Sugimoto, H. Ochi, S. Fujimura, A. Yoshida, T. Miyadera, M. Tsuchida, “Flexible OLED Displays Using Plastic Substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. A. Soref, “Field effects in nematic liquid crystals obtained with interdigital electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 5466–5468 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, S.-T. Wu, “Correlations between liquid crystal director reorientation and optical response time of a homeotropic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5502–5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. H. Lee, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. S. Jin, K.-U. Jeong, “Devices and materials for high-performance mobile liquid crystal displays,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(24), 11893–11903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M.-K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S.-W. Kang, Y. E. Choi, B. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, S. Kundu, H.-S. Jin, Y. K. Yun, S. H. Lee, L. Komitov, “Surface polymer-stabilised in-plane field driven vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 41(4), 552–557 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electric ink display,” Nature 423, 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (12)

M. Nishii, R. Sakurai, K. Sugie, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “The Use of Transparent Conductive Polymer for Electrode Materials in Flexible Electronic Paper,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers40, 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sakurai, S. Ohno, S.-I. Kita, Y. Masuda, R. Hattori, “Color and Flexible Electronic Paper Display using QR-LPD® Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37, 1922–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y, “A new MVA-LCD by polymer sustained alignment technology,” SID Symposium Digest35, 1200–1203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanaoka, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Inoue, S. Tanuma, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, “ A New MVA-LCD by Polymer Sustained Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers35, 1200–2003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active Matrix Low Temperature Poly-Si TFT/OLED Full Color Display: Developmetn Stratus,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31, 974–977 (2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cell structure of the VA-IPS cell with polymer network in (a) off- and (b) on-states. The existence of polymer network in bulk does not disturb vertical LC orientation and the in-plane field induces LC reorientation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarizing optical macroscopic images at different applied voltages: (a) before and (b) after UV curing. Here, T indicates transmittance and the number in a subscript indicates relative value of the maximum transmittance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) V-T curves and (b) response times of the proposed VA-IPS cell before and after UV curing of RM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of polymer network of the experimental cell after UV curing: (a) top view of polymer network on top substrate and (b) high magnification in green dotted area of Fig. 4(a) and (c) top view of polymer network on bottom substrate and (d) high magnification along the cross-section A-A’ of Fig. 4(c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured voltage-dependent transmittance curve in the VA-IPS cell after UV curing when the RM concentration is10 wt%. The insets are SEM images of top and side views of polymer structure on top substrate. The SEM images show a polymer lump is formed with its thickness 2.6 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Macroscopic images of (a) normal VA-IPS cell and (b) proposed VA-IPS cell exhibiting clearly comparable pooling effect under an external mechanical pressure.

Equations (2)

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T/T 0 = sin 2 (2ψ(V)) sin 2 dΔ n eff (V)/λ)
τ on = τ off /[ ( V/V th ) 2 1] τ off = γd 2 / π 2 K 3

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