Abstract

We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain a mid-infrared optical frequency comb (OFC) experimentally by using a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The comb is generated without any active modulation. It is based on cascading quadratic nonlinearities that arise from intra-cavity phase mismatched second harmonic generation of the signal wave that resonates in the OPO. The generated OFC is transferred from the signal wavelength (near-infrared) to the idler wavelength (mid-infrared) by intracavity difference frequency generation between the OPO pump wave and the signal comb. We have produced a mid-infrared frequency comb which is tunable from 3.0 to 3.4 µm with an average output power of up to 3.1 W.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A. C. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J. S. Harris, M. E. Fermann, M. M. Fejer, “Widely tunable midinfrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned GaAs pumped with a femtosecond Tm-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2928–2930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vainio, L. Halonen, “Stable operation of a cw optical parametric oscillator near the signal-idler degeneracy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 475–477 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, “Continuous wave monolithic quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2973–2975 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phasematched waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(20), 18754–18773 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, J. Jiang, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3912–3914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Neely, T. A. Johnson, S. A. Diddams, “High-power broadband laser source tunable from 3.0 μm to 4.4 μm based on a femtosecond Yb:fiber oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4020–4022 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vainio, C. Ozanam, V. Ulvila, L. Halonen, “Tuning and stability of a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator close to degeneracy,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22515–22527 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 microm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

N. Forget, S. Bahbah, C. Drag, F. Bretenaker, M. Lefèbvre, E. Rosencher, “Actively mode-locked optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 972–974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, P. De Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

2002

2000

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities,” Science 290(5497), 1739–1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. I. Stegeman, “χ(2) cascading: Nonlinear phase shifts,” Quantum Semicl. Opt. 9(2), 139–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

1968

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).

Adler, F.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahbah, S.

Baillargeon, J. N.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities,” Science 290(5497), 1739–1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartalini, S.

Beckmann, T.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaser, S.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bliss, D.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).

Bretenaker, F.

Breunig, I.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

Camargo, F. A.

Cancio, P.

Capasso, F.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities,” Science 290(5497), 1739–1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cappelli, F.

Cerullo, G.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, A. Monguzzi, D. Segala, V. Magni, “Self-starting mode locking of a Cw Nd:YAG laser using cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 746–748 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaitanya Kumar, S.

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities,” Science 290(5497), 1739–1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cossel, K. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

De Silvestri, S.

Del’Haye, P.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat Commun 4, 1345 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeSalvo, R.

Dherbecourt, J.-B.

Diddams, S. A.

Drag, C.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

Faist, J.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feaver, R. K.

Fejer, M. M.

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M.

Fermann, M. E.

Forget, N.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, P. De Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gale, B. J. S.

Galli, I.

Gavartin, E.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the OPO and the measurement setup. PPLN = periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 nonlinear crystal, OSA = optical spectrum analyzer, PD = photo detector, FC = fibre coupler, RF = radio frequency, and λp, λs, and λi stand for pump, signal, and idler wavelengths, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle diagram of the process. A frequency comb is obtained around the signal wave by SPM in the PPLN 2 crystal and then it is transferred around the idler wave by DFG between the pump wave and signal comb in the PPLN 1 crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectrum of the signal beam measured with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Inset: The inset shows a detail of the spectrum measured with a high-resolution FTIR-spectrometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical spectrum of the idler beam. The inset shows the spectral structure of the idler beam recorded with a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer. (b) RF spectrum of the frequency doubled idler beam (RBW = 300 kHz). (c) Photodetector signal recorded from the signal beam output and (d) a close-up of the photodetector signal. In these measurements the cavity length of the OPO was not stabilized.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample of the idler comb scan where poling periods 30.5 and 31.0 µm, and the temperature scan of the PPLN 1 crystal were used.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Idler tuning by tuning the pump laser. The pump laser frequency was modulated with a 0.9 Hz sin wave. The signal was low-pass filtered with a bandwidth of ~15 Hz. (b) The cavity length locked to the beat frequency between an ECDL and the frequency doubled idler comb. The ECDL was constantly modulated and the lock was turned on at 0 s.

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