Abstract

We design a resistive heater optimized for efficient and low-loss optical phase modulation in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide and characterize the fabricated devices. Modulation is achieved by flowing current perpendicular to a new ridge waveguide geometry. The resistance profile is engineered using different dopant concentrations to obtain localized heat generation and maximize the overlap between the optical mode and the high temperature regions of the structure, while simultaneously minimizing optical loss due to free-carrier absorption. A 61.6 μm long phase shifter was fabricated in a CMOS process with oxide cladding and two metal layers. The device features a phase-shifting efficiency of 24.77 ± 0.43 mW/π and a −3 dB modulation bandwidth of 130.0 ± 5.59 kHz; the insertion loss measured for 21 devices across an 8-inch wafer was only 0.23 ± 0.13 dB. Considering the prospect of densely integrated photonic circuits, we also quantify the separation necessary to isolate thermo-optic devices in the standard 220 nm SOI platform.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2014

2013

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach–Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express 20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

2006

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

J. Xia, J. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Fan, S. Chen, “Low power 2 2 thermo-optic SOI waveguide switch fabricated by anisotropy chemical etching,” Opt. Commun. 232, 223–228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, M. Asheghi, “Phonon–boundary scattering in ultrathin single-crystal silicon layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. B. Kleiner, S. A. Kuhn, W. Weber, “Thermal conductivity measurements of thin silicon dioxide films in integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 1602–1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5m in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85(2) (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Asheghi, M.

W. Liu, M. Asheghi, “Phonon–boundary scattering in ultrathin single-crystal silicon layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Ayazi, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, and others, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, and others, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Bergmen, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

Bonneau, D.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, S.

J. Xia, J. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Fan, S. Chen, “Low power 2 2 thermo-optic SOI waveguide switch fabricated by anisotropy chemical etching,” Opt. Commun. 232, 223–228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Covey, J.

DeRose, C.

Ding, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, and others, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Dorenbos, S. N.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Engin, E.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ezaki, M.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

J. Xia, J. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Fan, S. Chen, “Low power 2 2 thermo-optic SOI waveguide switch fabricated by anisotropy chemical etching,” Opt. Commun. 232, 223–228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16, 15304–15311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fegadolli, W. S.

Feng, L.

Galland, C.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

Gould, M.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, and others, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

Green, W. M.

Hadfield, R. H.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harris, N.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, and others, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Harris, N. C.

He, L.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, and others, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Ho, C. Y.

Y. S. Touloukian, R. W. Powell, C. Y. Ho, P. G. Klemens, “Thermophysical Properties of Matter - The TPRC Data Series. Volume 1. Thermal Conductivity - Metallic Elements and Alloys,” (1970).

Hochberg, M.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

Hosseini, A.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iizuka, N.

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys. 14, 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, M. B.

M. B. Kleiner, S. A. Kuhn, W. Weber, “Thermal conductivity measurements of thin silicon dioxide films in integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 1602–1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, P. G.

Y. S. Touloukian, R. W. Powell, C. Y. Ho, P. G. Klemens, “Thermophysical Properties of Matter - The TPRC Data Series. Volume 1. Thermal Conductivity - Metallic Elements and Alloys,” (1970).

Kuhn, S. A.

M. B. Kleiner, S. A. Kuhn, W. Weber, “Thermal conductivity measurements of thin silicon dioxide films in integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 1602–1609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

Kwong, D. L.

Kwong, D.-L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
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P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2011).
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Li, Q.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
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Lim, A.-J.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
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Liow, T.-Y.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
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L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1358–1361 (2013).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss Y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
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C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký, I. Molina-Fernandez, eds. (SPIE, 2013), p. 878107.

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C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
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P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6, 45–49 (2011).
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C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
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C. Galland, A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, “A CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform for high-speed integrated opto-electronics,” in SPIE Microtechnologies (SPIE, 2013), pp. 87670G.
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical micrograph of the structure with the vias connecting the lowest metal layer and the doped silicon clearly visible. hSi denotes silicon layer thickness. (b) Perspective view of the phase shifter with annotations for relevant dimensions. (c) Doping profile along the cross section marked red in (b), overlapped with the simulated amplitude of the horizontal component of the electric field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Planar projections of temperature and voltage distributions from a three-dimensional simulation. (a) and (b) Show the highly localized temperature and voltage distributions, respectively, for an applied voltage corresponding to π phase shift. (c) Temperature distribution with device outline overlay for the dotted-line cross-section in (a). (a) and (c) share the same temperature color bar. The voltage is dropped almost exclusively across the thermal channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Annotated test structure layout including MZI with path imbalance and the thermo-optic phase shifter, (b) average phase shift versus dissipated power for three devices, (c) average response of the MZI to pure sinusoids of various frequencies for four devices with a dotted line labeling the −3 dB level, (d) histogram of the transmission through the heater for 21 devices on the same wafer, (e) MZI spectra for various power dissipation levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Annotated layout for the test structure used to probe the temperature distribution within the SOI wafer. The arms of the MZI were designed to have a large separation to avoid a phase shift in both simultaneously. (b) Phase shift imparted on left-most MZI path as a function of the waveguide to heater separation for various power dissipation levels. Power law fit lines are also shown. (c) Phase shift imparted on MZI left-most arm as a function of dissipated power for various waveguide to heater separation levels.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of recent thermo-optic waveguide phase shifter parameters where L is the total heater length, Vπ and Pπ are the applied voltage and power necessary to reach π radians of phase shift, respectively, and τ is the limiting rise or fall time constant. In results where τ is not reported, the single-pole approximation τ = 0.35 f 3 d B is used to convert between metrics.

Metrics