Abstract

Phytoplankton size is important for the pelagic food web and oceanic ecosystems. However, the size of phytoplankton is difficult to quantify because of methodological constraints. To address this limitation, we have exploited the phytoplankton package effect to develop a new method for estimating the mean cell size of individual phytoplankton populations. This method was validated using a data set that contained simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton absorption and cell size distributions from 13 phytoplankton species. Comparing with existing methods, our method is more efficient with good accuracy, and it could potentially be applied in current in situ optical instruments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Boyd, P. Newton, “Evidence of the potential influence of planktonic community structure on the interannual variability of particulate organic carbon flux,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 42(5), 619–639 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Waite, P. S. Hill, “Flocculation and phytoplankton cell size can alter 234Th-based estimates of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the sea,” Mar. Chem. 100(3-4), 366–375 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. L. Richardson, G. A. Jackson, “Small phytoplankton and carbon export from the surface ocean,” Science 315(5813), 838–840 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).
  6. M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
  8. F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Ras, H. Claustre, J. Uitz, “Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 353–369 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).
  12. J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Organelli, A. Bricaud, D. Antoine, J. Uitz, “Multivariate approach for the retrieval of phytoplankton size structure from measured light absorption spectra in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2257–2273 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(2), 404–417 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Retrieval of phytoplankton size from bio-optical measurements: theory and applications,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8(58), 650–660 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010 (2004).
  18. S. E. Lohrenz, A. D. Weidemann, M. Tuel, “Phytoplankton spectral absorption as influenced by community size structure and pigment composition,” J. Plankton Res. 25(1), 35–61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7(2), 207–217 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).
  21. L. N. Duysens, “The flattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19(1), 1–12 (1956).
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  23. A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).
  25. N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 290–302 (1990).
  30. T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 7(3), 4295–4340 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15073–15093 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Organelli, A. Bricaud, D. Antoine, J. Uitz, “Multivariate approach for the retrieval of phytoplankton size structure from measured light absorption spectra in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2257–2273 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Retrieval of phytoplankton size from bio-optical measurements: theory and applications,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8(58), 650–660 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 7(3), 4295–4340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ras, H. Claustre, J. Uitz, “Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 353–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. L. Richardson, G. A. Jackson, “Small phytoplankton and carbon export from the surface ocean,” Science 315(5813), 838–840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. M. Waite, P. S. Hill, “Flocculation and phytoplankton cell size can alter 234Th-based estimates of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the sea,” Mar. Chem. 100(3-4), 366–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

2004 (4)

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010 (2004).

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. E. Lohrenz, A. D. Weidemann, M. Tuel, “Phytoplankton spectral absorption as influenced by community size structure and pigment composition,” J. Plankton Res. 25(1), 35–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(2), 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Boyd, P. Newton, “Evidence of the potential influence of planktonic community structure on the interannual variability of particulate organic carbon flux,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 42(5), 619–639 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 290–302 (1990).

1984 (1)

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

1981 (1)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7(2), 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

L. N. Duysens, “The flattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19(1), 1–12 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aiken, J.

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

Balch, W. M.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barciela, R. M.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R.

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, T.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Bidigare, R. R.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 290–302 (1990).

Bissett, W. P.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Boss, E.

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, P.

P. Boyd, P. Newton, “Evidence of the potential influence of planktonic community structure on the interannual variability of particulate organic carbon flux,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 42(5), 619–639 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brewin, R. J.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

E. Organelli, A. Bricaud, D. Antoine, J. Uitz, “Multivariate approach for the retrieval of phytoplankton size structure from measured light absorption spectra in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2257–2273 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010 (2004).

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. W.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burkill, P. H.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cermeño, P.

E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciotti, A. M.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(2), 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ras, H. Claustre, J. Uitz, “Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 353–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010 (2004).

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clavano, W. R.

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

Cullen, J. J.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(2), 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dera, J.

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

Devred, E.

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

Duysens, L. N.

L. N. Duysens, “The flattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19(1), 1–12 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ficek, D.

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

Gorsky, G.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guidi, L.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guillard, R. R.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harbour, D. S.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Hardman-Mountford, N.

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardman-Mountford, N. J.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. P.

E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Head, R. N.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Hill, P. S.

A. M. Waite, P. S. Hill, “Flocculation and phytoplankton cell size can alter 234Th-based estimates of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the sea,” Mar. Chem. 100(3-4), 366–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, T.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P. M.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Hooker, S. B.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).

Hu, S.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanez, F.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, A.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Jackson, G. A.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Richardson, G. A. Jackson, “Small phytoplankton and carbon export from the surface ocean,” Science 315(5813), 838–840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

Karp-Boss, L.

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, L. Karp-Boss, “Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles—from theory to observation,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 290–302 (1990).

Kirkpatrick, G.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Kostadinov, T.

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 7(3), 4295–4340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S. J.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leakey, R. J.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Legendre, L.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(2), 404–417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lindley, E. A. S.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Lohrenz, S. E.

S. E. Lohrenz, A. D. Weidemann, M. Tuel, “Phytoplankton spectral absorption as influenced by community size structure and pigment composition,” J. Plankton Res. 25(1), 35–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, M. I.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Luchetta, A.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maass, H.

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

Majchrowski, R.

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

Manca, B. B.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marañón, E.

E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 7(3), 4295–4340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marty, J. C.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moline, M. A.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Morel, A.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 28(11), 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, J. H.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 290–302 (1990).

Newell, R. C.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Newton, P.

P. Boyd, P. Newton, “Evidence of the potential influence of planktonic community structure on the interannual variability of particulate organic carbon flux,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 42(5), 619–639 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. J.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Ondrusek, M. E.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 290–302 (1990).

Organelli, E.

Orrico, C.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Oubelkheir, K.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010 (2004).

Pegau, W. S.

Picheral, M.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Retrieval of phytoplankton size from bio-optical measurements: theory and applications,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8(58), 650–660 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

Ras, J.

J. Ras, H. Claustre, J. Uitz, “Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 353–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010 (2004).

Richardson, T. L.

T. L. Richardson, G. A. Jackson, “Small phytoplankton and carbon export from the surface ocean,” Science 315(5813), 838–840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, J.

E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Retrieval of phytoplankton size from bio-optical measurements: theory and applications,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8(58), 650–660 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Retrieval of phytoplankton size from bio-optical measurements: theory and applications,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8(58), 650–660 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, M. J. Oliver, A. Irwin, G. Kirkpatrick, W. P. Bissett, M. A. Moline, C. Orrico, “Inversion of spectral absorption in the optically complex coastal waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S04 (2004).

Siegel, D.

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci. Discuss. 7(3), 4295–4340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kostadinov, D. Siegel, S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sleigh, M. A.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T.

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stemmann, L.

L. Guidi, L. Stemmann, G. A. Jackson, F. Ibanez, H. Claustre, L. Legendre, M. Picheral, G. Gorsky, “Effects of phytoplankton community on production, size and export of large aggregates: A world-ocean analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6), 1951–1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoñ-Egiert, J.

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

Stuart, V.

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

Sun, Z.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarran, G. A.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tranter, P. R. G.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Tuel, M.

S. E. Lohrenz, A. D. Weidemann, M. Tuel, “Phytoplankton spectral absorption as influenced by community size structure and pigment composition,” J. Plankton Res. 25(1), 35–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uitz, J.

E. Organelli, A. Bricaud, D. Antoine, J. Uitz, “Multivariate approach for the retrieval of phytoplankton size structure from measured light absorption spectra in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2257–2273 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ras, H. Claustre, J. Uitz, “Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 353–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).

Ulloa, O.

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).

Vaillancourt, R. D.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vidussi, F.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waite, A. M.

A. M. Waite, P. S. Hill, “Flocculation and phytoplankton cell size can alter 234Th-based estimates of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the sea,” Mar. Chem. 100(3-4), 366–375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weekley, C. M.

P. M. Holligan, R. P. Harris, R. C. Newell, D. S. Harbour, R. N. Head, E. A. S. Lindley, M. I. Lucas, P. R. G. Tranter, C. M. Weekley, “Vertical distribution and partitioning of organic carbon in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the English Channel,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 14, 111–127 (1984).

Weidemann, A. D.

S. E. Lohrenz, A. D. Weidemann, M. Tuel, “Phytoplankton spectral absorption as influenced by community size structure and pigment composition,” J. Plankton Res. 25(1), 35–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, A. L.

Wozniak, B.

D. Ficek, S. Kaczmarek, J. Stoñ-Egiert, B. Wozniak, R. Majchrowski, J. Dera, “Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data,” Oceanologia 46, 533–555 (2004).

Xu, Z.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7(2), 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Zhou, W.

J. Lin, W. Cao, W. Zhou, S. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Sun, Z. Xu, Q. Song, “A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm,” Chin. J. Oceanology Limnol. 31(5), 970–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubkov, M. V.

E. Marañón, P. Cermeño, J. Rodríguez, M. V. Zubkov, R. P. Harris, “Scaling of phytoplankton photosynthesis and cell size in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(5), 2190–2198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, G. A. Tarran, P. H. Burkill, R. J. Leakey, “Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50 N to 50 S,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(8), 1339–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

L. N. Duysens, “The flattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19(1), 1–12 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biogeosci. Discuss. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Method flowchart.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparisons of the estimated and measured values of the mean cell diameter (MCD) and chlorophyll a (chla) concentration. A. MCD, B. Chla concentration. When σk varied from 8.9 to 9.5 nm, the estimated parameters were within the ranges defined by the red bars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A. Relationship between BWf and measured the mean cell diameter (MCD). B. Relationship between the mean cell volume and cell-specific chlorophyll a (chla) concentration, where the relationship proposed by Maranón et al. [27] is also shown.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Notations used in the text

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Table 2 Data set details

Equations (13)

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Q a ( λ )= 3 2 ρ ( λ ) { 1+ 2exp[ ρ ( λ ) ] ρ ( λ ) +2 exp[ ρ ( λ ) ]1 ρ 2 ( λ ) },
ρ ( λ )= a cm ( λ )d= C I d j=1 5 C j C chla a j,s ( λ ),
a j,s ( λ )= i=1 n a max,ij exp[ 1 2 ( λ λ max,ij σ ij ) 2 ]
a ph ( λ )= Q a ( λ ) j=1 5 C j a j,s ( λ )
ρ ( λ ) = C I d a c h l a , s ( λ ) ,
a c h l a , r ( λ ) = Q a ( λ ) C c h l a a max * exp [ 1 2 ( λ λ max σ k ) 2 ]
a chla,r ( λ max )= Q a ( λ max ) C chla a max * .
a chla,r ( λ ) a chla,r ( λ max ) = Q a ( λ ) Q a ( λ max ) exp[ 1 2 ( λ λ max σ k ) 2 ]
d= ( C I d c 0 ) 1 1m
C chla = a chla,r ( λ max ) Q a ( λ max ) a max *
RMSE ( % ) = 100 [ 1 n i = 1 n ( x i , c o m p u t e d x i , m e a s u r e d x i , m e a s u r e d ) 2 ] 1 / 2
B W f = 0.45 ( n m u m 1 ) d + 45.2 ( n m ) ( R 2 = 0.73 )
log 10 ( y ) = 3.1 + 1.12 log 10 ( x ) ( R 2 = 0.91 )

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