Abstract

New demonstrations of effective interaction between light and artificially electromagnetic interface, or the metasurface, have stimulated intensive research interests on control of light to realize applications in beam steering, optical imaging and light focusing, etc. Here we reported a new type of planar metasurface of which every individual metamolecule is single metallic layer with stereo structure and the metasurface is name as Pseudo-Planar Metasurface (PPM). The metamolecule of the PPM is a chiral structure and therefore derives significant optical activity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013

R. F. Oulton, J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction: Imaging through the looking-glass,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 323–324 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Silveirinha, N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alu, A.

Aoust, G.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, B. F.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caglayan, H.

Cai, H.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Z.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colak, E.

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alu, N. Engheta, “Cloaking and transparency for collections of particles with metamaterial and plasmonic covers,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7578–7590 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Silveirinha, N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L. L.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ino, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, G. F.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G. X.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. F.

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. Q.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Lo, G. Q.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muhlenbernd, H.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mühlenbernd, H.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction: Imaging through the looking-glass,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 323–324 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

R. F. Oulton, J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction: Imaging through the looking-glass,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 323–324 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C. W.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, N.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveirinha, M.

M. Silveirinha, N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Q. F.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanoto, H.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, J. H.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. L. J.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallius, T.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N. F.

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, Z. Liu, T. J. Yen, X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. F.

Zhu, W. M.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater.

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Muhlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, “Reversible three-dimensional focusing of visible light with ultrathin plasmonic flat lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, H. Cai, M. L. J. Tsai, G. Q. Lo, D. P. Tsai, H. Tanoto, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu, “Resonance switchable metamaterials using MEMS fabrications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Z. Chen, L. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, D. P. Tsai, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, N. I. Zheludev, “Microelectromechanical Maltese-cross metamaterial with tunable terahertz anisotropy,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1274 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

R. F. Oulton, J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction: Imaging through the looking-glass,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 323–324 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. F. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Modeling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Silveirinha, N. Engheta, “Tunneling of electromagnetic energy through subwavelength channels and bends using ε-near-zero materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(15), 157403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1998), Chap. 8.

R. Menzel, Photonics: Linear and Nonlinear Interactions of Laser Light and Matter (Springer, 2007), Chap. 3.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the pseudo-planar metasurface. Gammadion metamolecule is deposited on the planar substrate with squared trenches. The center to the metamolecule is deflected in the trench and the metamolecule forms a stereo structure. (b) The stereo gammadion metamolecule on the top is not superimposable with its mirror image at the bottom and is of a chiral structure (c) A planar gammadion metamolecule without the substrate is superimposable with its mirror image, which is an achiral structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerically calculated right and left circularly polarized transmittivity t++ (black line) and t (red line) when trench depth h is 0, 10 µm, 20 µm and 40 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerically calculated (a) polarization rotation and (b) ellipticity of the PPM when the trench depth h is 0 µm (black line), 10 µm (red line), 20 µm (green line) and 40 µm (blue line). The right column shows the zoomed in polarization rotation and ellipticity from 0.525 THz to 0.575 THz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerically calculated electrical amplitude on (a, c) planar metasurfaces and (b, d) PPM in (a, b) x-orientation and (c, d) y-orientation with incident wave in x-polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface current on the PPM at (a) 0.47 THz and (b) 0.56 THz with incident wave in x-polarization. (c) The radiation of the deflected “Z” structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the pseudo-planar metasurface. (a) Overview of the metamolecule array and (b) close-up view of a single stereo metamolecule with trench depth of 20 μm and (c) 50 μm, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured right and left circularly polarized transmittivity t++ (black line) and t (red line) when trench depth h is 0, 10 µm, 20 µm and 50 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The measured (a) polarization rotation angle and (b) ellipticity of the normally incident light with different trench depth h. The polarization rotation angle and ellipticity increases as the trench depth increases.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The measured (a) polarization rotation angle and (b) ellipticity of the normally incident light with different gammadion arm length s. The polarization rotation angle and ellipticity increases as the gammadion arm length increases.

Equations (3)

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θ = ( φ + + φ ) / 2
tan χ = ( t + + t ) / ( t + + + t )
t ±± = t xx ±i t yx

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