Abstract

Single microring resonators have been used in applications such as wavelength multicasting and microwave photonics, but the dependence of the free spectral range with ring radius imposes a trade-off between the required GHz optical channel spacing, footprint and power consumption. We demonstrate four-channel all-optical wavelength multicasting using only 1 mW of control power, with converted channel spacing of 40-60 GHz. Our device is based on a compact embedded microring design fabricated on a scalable SOI platform. The coexistence of close resonance spacing and high finesse (205) in a compact footprint is possible due to enhanced quality factors (30,000) resulting from the embedded configuration and the coupling-strength dependence of resonance spacing, instead of ring size. In addition, we discuss the possibility of achieving continuously mode splitting from a single-notch resonance up to 40 GHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

X. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, W. Pang, “Power enhancement and phase regimes in embedded microring resonators in analogy with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20179–20186 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, G. F. M. de Rezende, N. C. Frateschi, “Spectral engineering with CMOS compatible SOI photonic molecules,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202717 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Franchimon, K. R. Hiremath, R. Stoffer, M. Hammer, “Interaction of whispering gallery modes in integrated optical microring or microdisk circuits: hybrid coupled mode theory model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1048–1057 (2013).

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, N. C. Frateschi, “Silicon technology compatible photonic molecules for compact optical signal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

W. S. Fegadolli, G. Vargas, X. Wang, F. Valini, L. A. M. Barea, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Frateschi, A. Scherer, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, “Reconfigurable silicon thermo-optical ring resonator switch based on Vernier effect control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14722–14733 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15079–15085 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Feng, T. Lei, H. Chen, H. Cai, X. Luo, A. Poon, “Silicon photonics: from a microresonator perspective,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(2), 145–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, R. Ji, L. Yang, P. Zhou, H. Chen, J. Ding, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, M. Yu, “Proof of concept of directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1650–1652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shahoei, J. Yao, “Simultaneous slow light, fast light, and continues slow to fast light tuning in a microresonator via interaction of dual inputs,” Proc. SPIE 8007, 80070U (2011).

S. I. Schmid, K. Xia, J. Evers, “Pathway interference in a loop array of three coupled microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. H. Atabaki, B. Momeni, A. A. Eftekhar, E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. Adibi, “Tuning of resonance-spacing in a traveling-wave resonator device,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9447–9455 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 20(2), 151–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Yao, “Microwave Photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, Y. Tong, J. Wang, Y. Tian, M. Qiu, Y. Su, “Modeling of quasi-grating sidewall corrugation in SOI microring add-drop filters,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3464–3467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2000

M. Saruwatari, “All-optical signal processing for terabit/second optical transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1363–1374 (2000).

1999

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(2), 67–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).

Absil, P. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Atabaki, A. H.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401–412 (2005).

Barea, L. A. M.

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, G. F. M. de Rezende, N. C. Frateschi, “Spectral engineering with CMOS compatible SOI photonic molecules,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202717 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, N. C. Frateschi, “Silicon technology compatible photonic molecules for compact optical signal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fegadolli, G. Vargas, X. Wang, F. Valini, L. A. M. Barea, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Frateschi, A. Scherer, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, “Reconfigurable silicon thermo-optical ring resonator switch based on Vernier effect control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14722–14733 (2012).
[PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Beckx, S.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401–412 (2005).

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401–412 (2005).

Bolten, J.

Bose, S. K.

R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 20(2), 151–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

S. Feng, T. Lei, H. Chen, H. Cai, X. Luo, A. Poon, “Silicon photonics: from a microresonator perspective,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(2), 145–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).

Chu, T.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Rezende, G. F. M.

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, G. F. M. de Rezende, N. C. Frateschi, “Spectral engineering with CMOS compatible SOI photonic molecules,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202717 (2013).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deane, J. H. B.

Ding, J.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401–412 (2005).

Eftekhar, A. A.

Evers, J.

S. I. Schmid, K. Xia, J. Evers, “Pathway interference in a loop array of three coupled microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).

Fang, Q.

Fegadolli, W. S.

Feng, S.

S. Feng, T. Lei, H. Chen, H. Cai, X. Luo, A. Poon, “Silicon photonics: from a microresonator perspective,” Laser Phot. Rev. 6(2), 145–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).

Först, M.

Franchimon, E. F.

Frateschi, N.

Frateschi, N. C.

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, N. C. Frateschi, “Silicon technology compatible photonic molecules for compact optical signal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, G. F. M. de Rezende, N. C. Frateschi, “Spectral engineering with CMOS compatible SOI photonic molecules,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202717 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D.

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscopy of the device fabricated in SOI with radius R1 = 20 μm, R2 = 9.625 μm. The gap spacing is 200 nm in all coupling regions. (b) The direct coupling between embedded rings generates both clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) traveling modes, even if the incident light (sin) is coupled to only one direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Broadband transmission spectrum or the coupled resonator design. The red (λ2) and blue (λ1) lines represent the bare resonances of the embedded and outer rings, respectively. The variable detuning (λ2–λ1) leads to multiple coupling regimes and is used to obtain an (b) anti-crossing diagram comparing the experimental points and the theoretical plot using CMT. Notice that the vertical axis of (b) corresponds to the horizontal axis of (a). Inset: accidental anti-crossing due to slightly asymmetric coupling between the embedded rings and the outer ring (κ13 = 0.9∙κ12). (c) Transmission spectra showing different resonance profiles: (i) a symmetric quadruplet is observed when only the embedded rings are resonant; (i-iv) as ω1 approaches ω2, the quadruplet is distorted and the outer ring resonance is mode-split (orange/purple dots).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Quadruplet resonances with close resonance spacing (40-60 GHz), high Q (30,000), moderate extinction ratio (9 dB) and high finesse (F = 205). (b) High field enhancement attested by infrared images. (c) Tunable mode-splitting originating from a single-notch resonance. The maximum resonance spacing observed is 0.35 nm (40 GHz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D-FDTD simulations. (a) Transmission spectrum with a quadruplet of sharp resonances S1, S2, S3 and S4. (b) Coupling region between the embedded rings (solid rectangle) used to analyze the (c) electric field profile, showing anti-bonding (S1 and S2) and bonding (S3 and S4) coupling regimes. Plus ( + ) and minus (–) signs represent the maximum and minimum of the electric field. (d) The supermodes are spatially confined within the embedded rings for the quadruplet resonances, increasing their loaded Q’s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for four-channel wavelength multicasting. PC, polarization controller; PG, pattern generator; Mod, optical modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; VOA, variable optical attenuator; BPF, band-pass optical filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Four-channel wavelength multicasting. Control and converted waveforms for (a) non-inverted and (b) inverted wavelength conversion at 622 Mbit/s. The control power is 0 dBm and the probe power is −12 dBm in each channel. Control and converted signal wavelengths are, respectively, λC = 1547.9 nm, λS1 = 1616.40 nm, λS2 = 1616.77 nm, λS3 = 1617.31 nm, and λS4 = 1617.65 nm.

Equations (1)

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( a ˙ 1 cw a ˙ 1 ccw a ˙ 2 cw a ˙ 2 ccw a ˙ 3 cw a ˙ 3 ccw )=( jΔ ω 1 Γ 1 j μ 1 j κ 12 0 j κ 13 0 j μ 1 jΔ ω 1 Γ 1 0 j κ 12 0 j κ 13 j κ 12 0 jΔ ω 2 γ 02 j μ 2 0 j κ 23 0 j κ 12 j μ 2 jΔ ω 2 γ 02 j κ 23 0 j κ 13 0 0 j κ 23 jΔ ω 2 γ 02 j μ 3 0 j κ 13 j κ 23 0 j μ 3 jΔ ω 2 γ 02 )( a 1 cw a 1 ccw a 2 cw a 2 ccw a 3 cw a 3 ccw )+j κ ext s in ( 1 0 0 0 0 0 )

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