Abstract

We present an optical holographic micro-tomographic technique for imaging both the three-dimensional structures and dynamics of biological cells. Optical light field images of a sample, illuminated by a plane wave with various illumination angles, are measured in a common-path interferometry, and thus both the three-dimensional refractive index tomogram and two-dimensional dynamics of live biological cells are measured with extremely high sensitivity. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated through quantitative and measurements of morphological, chemical, and mechanical parameters at the individual cell level.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  53. Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  55. H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Jung, Y. Park, “Spectro-angular light scattering measurements of individual microscopic objects,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4108–4114 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Jung, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Spectro-refractometry of individual microscopic objects using swept-source quantitative phase imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(21), 10519–10525 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jang, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Dynamic spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in red blood cells,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9673–9681 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pham, B. Bhaduri, H. F. Ding, G. Popescu, “Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3438–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Singh, A. Anand, R. A. Leitgeb, B. Javidi, “Lateral shearing digital holographic imaging of small biological specimens,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23617–23622 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chhaniwal, A. S. G. Singh, R. A. Leitgeb, B. Javidi, A. Anand, “Quantitative phase-contrast imaging with compact digital holographic microscope employing Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5127–5129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. J. Weatherall, “Systems biology and red cells,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(4), 376–377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Debnath, Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4677–4679 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

2010

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

2007

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gorski, W. Osten, “Tomographic imaging of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1977–1979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2002

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anand, A.

Arbabi, A.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Auth, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbul, A.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berl, E.

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

Best, C. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

Best-Popescu, C. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhaduri, B.

Boppart, M.

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boss, D.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

Byun, H. S.

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cano, E.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. Y.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, F.

Chhaniwal, V.

Cho, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W. S.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. H.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. Mitchell, P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dao, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dassari, R. R.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debailleul, M.

Debnath, S. K.

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

Depeursinge, C.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. Mitchell, P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diez-Silva, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H. F.

Do, M. N.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, C.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiolka, R.

Fu, D.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fürhapter, S.

García, J.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Georges, V.

Gillette, M. U.

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorski, W.

Gov, N. S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeberlé, O.

Heger, T. J.

Heintzmann, R.

Henle, M. L.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J. H.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, J. M.

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, A.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Jang, J.

Jang, Y.

Javidi, B.

Jeong, J.

Jesacher, A.

Jo, Y. J.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jourdain, P.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

J. Jung, Y. Park, “Spectro-angular light scattering measurements of individual microscopic objects,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4108–4114 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J. H.

J. H. Jung, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Spectro-refractometry of individual microscopic objects using swept-source quantitative phase imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(21), 10519–10525 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, W.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

Kim, K.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

Kim, M. W.

Kim, S.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. I.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korenstein, R.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, J.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

Kuriabova, T.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauer, V.

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. H.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Levine, A. J.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lue, N.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Marquet, P.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. Mitchell, P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurer, C.

Mico, V.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihi, A.

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, E. A.

Moratal, C.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morin, R.

Oh, S.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osten, W.

Park, H.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jung, Y. Park, “Spectro-angular light scattering measurements of individual microscopic objects,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4108–4114 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Jung, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Spectro-refractometry of individual microscopic objects using swept-source quantitative phase imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(21), 10519–10525 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jang, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Dynamic spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in red blood cells,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9673–9681 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Debnath, Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4677–4679 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. Mitchell, P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, H.

Popescu, G.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pham, B. Bhaduri, H. F. Ding, G. Popescu, “Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3438–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. Mitchell, P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Rommel, C. E.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

Ryu, S. W.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safran, S. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satterwhite, L. L.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

Schnekenburger, J.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

Shaked, N. T.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, E. C.

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simanis, V.

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

Simon, B.

Singh, A. S.

Singh, A. S. G.

Stemmer, A.

Sung, Y. J.

Suresh, S.

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telen, M. J.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

Truskey, G. A.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

Vollmer, A.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

von Bally, G.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

Weatherall, D. J.

D. J. Weatherall, “Systems biology and red cells,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(4), 376–377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wicker, K.

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, T.

Yaqoob, Z.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

Yoon, H.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalevsky, Z.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, R. J.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Acta Biomater.

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Rhysiology Cell Physiol. 295, 538–544 (2008).

Anal. Chem.

J. H. Jung, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Spectro-refractometry of individual microscopic objects using swept-source quantitative phase imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(21), 10519–10525 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. R. Dassari, M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103(1), 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blood Cells Mol. Dis.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, A. Hoffmann, D. Boss, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, “Spatial analysis of erythrocyte membrane fluctuations by digital holographic microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42(3), 228–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hepatology

J. Park, W. Kang, S. W. Ryu, W. I. Kim, D. Y. Chang, D. H. Lee, Y. Park, Y. H. Choi, K. Choi, E. C. Shin, C. Choi, “Hepatitis C virus infection enhances TNFα-induced cell death via suppression of NF-κB,” Hepatology 56(3), 831–840 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. Ding, E. Berl, Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, J. Liu, M. Boppart, G. Popescu, “Fourier Transform Light Scattering of Biological Structure and Dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. M. Higgins, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, Y. K. Park, “Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).

B. Rappaz, E. Cano, T. Colomb, J. Kühn, V. Simanis, P. J. Magistretti, P. Marquet, C. Depeursinge, “Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034049 (2009).

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).

J. Microsc.

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light: Sci. Appl.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(9), e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Engl. J. Med.

D. J. Weatherall, “Systems biology and red cells,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(4), 376–377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, J. García, “Common-path phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy: a way to quantitative phase imaging and superresolution,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4273–4281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. J. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. Mitchell, P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jang, J. Jang, Y. Park, “Dynamic spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in red blood cells,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9673–9681 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jung, Y. Park, “Spectro-angular light scattering measurements of individual microscopic objects,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4108–4114 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Singh, A. Anand, R. A. Leitgeb, B. Javidi, “Lateral shearing digital holographic imaging of small biological specimens,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23617–23622 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bernet, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, C. Maurer, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Quantitative imaging of complex samples by spiral phase contrast microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3792–3805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Fiolka, K. Wicker, R. Heintzmann, A. Stemmer, “Simplified approach to diffraction tomography in optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12407–12417 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

M. Debailleul, V. Georges, B. Simon, R. Morin, O. Haeberlé, “High-resolution three-dimensional tomographic diffractive microscopy of transparent inorganic and biological samples,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 79–81 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gorski, W. Osten, “Tomographic imaging of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1977–1979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chhaniwal, A. S. G. Singh, R. A. Leitgeb, B. Javidi, A. Anand, “Quantitative phase-contrast imaging with compact digital holographic microscope employing Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5127–5129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pham, B. Bhaduri, H. F. Ding, G. Popescu, “Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3438–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Debnath, Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4677–4679 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography,” PLoS ONE 7(6), e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel)

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Biotechnol.

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30(2), 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. Kaushansky, Williams Hematology (McGraw-Hill Medical New York, 2010).

Y. Kim, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurement Techniques for Red Blood Cell Deformability: Recent Advances,” in Blood Cell - An Overview of Studies in Hematology, T. E. Moschandreou, ed. (INTECH, 2012), pp. 167–194.

M. K. Kim, Digital Holography and Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer Verlag, 2011), Vol. 162.

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup and principle of cDOT. (a) The cDOT setup is composed of two galvanometric mirrors (GM1, GM2) synchronized with each other and a laser-interferometric microscope in a common-path geometry. A sample is positioned between the condenser and objective lenses. OL: objective lens; CL: condenser lens; GM1-2: galvanometric mirrors; M1-2: mirrors; L1-8: lenses. (b) The angle of an illumination beam impinging onto the sample is scanned by rotating GM1 and is de-scanned by GM2 in a synchronized manner such that the angle of the beam reflected from GM2 remains unchanged. (Inset) The sample is illuminated with a plane wave at different angles of illumination

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(d) Representative logarithmic Fourier spectra corresponding to specific illumination angles. The dashed circle in (b) represents the cut-off frequency for diffraction-limited optical fields. (e) The maximum intensity value of Fourier spectra as a function of illumination angle. (f) The temporal fluctuations of the intensity at the normal illumination (0°).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D RI tomogram of a polystyrene bead with a diameter of 3 μm. (a)-(c) Each cross-sectional slice corresponds to (a) the x-y plane at the focus, (b) the x-y plane at 0.5 μm above the focus, and (c) the x-z plane in the middle of the sample, respectively. The color map indicates the values of RI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3-D RI tomogram of a RBC from a healthy individual. (a)-(c) Each cross-sectional slice corresponds to (a) the x-y plane at the focus, (b) the x-y plane at 0.5 μm above the focus, and (c) the x-z plane in the middle of the sample, respectively. The color map indicates the values of RI and corresponding Hb concentration. (d) 3D rendered isosurfaces of RI maps of individual RBCs from a healthy individual and (e) Height fluctuation of the positions indicated as A and B in (d), and a position in the background as a function of time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3-D RI tomogram of a hepatocyte. (a)-(c) Each cross-sectional slice corresponds to (a) the x-y plane at the focus, (b) the x-y plane at 1 μm above the focus, and (c) the x-z plane in the middle of the sample, respectively. The color map indicates the RI value.

Equations (1)

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h(x,y;t)= λ 2π( n c n m ) Δϕ(x,y;t),

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