Abstract

A light polarization angle-sensitive photoconductive detector for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is computer-modeled, microfabricated, and tested. The experimental results show good agreement with the linear angular response for an ideal detector. The detector’s frequency, angular, and crosstalk responses are discussed in the context of theoretical and experimental considerations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

K. Wiesauer, C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 663–681 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Neshat, N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 740–775 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(4), 418–430 (2012) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Neshat, N. P. Armitage, “Improved measurement of polarization state in terahertz polarization spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1811–1813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Morris, R. V. Aguilar, A. V. Stier, N. P. Armitage, “Polarization modulation time-domain terahertz polarimetry,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12303–12317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: a review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417(1-2), 48–60 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maraghechi, A. Y. Elezzabi, “Experimental confirmation of design techniques for effective bow-tie antenna lengths at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(7), 897–901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 26, 547–556 (2006).

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1727–1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Aguilar, R. V.

Andrews, S. R.

Arikawa, T.

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, N. P.

Belyanin, A. A.

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackshire, J.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blackshire, J. L.

Bohn, M.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, M. J.

Castro-Camus, E.

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(4), 418–430 (2012) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, “An ion-implanted InP receiver for polarization resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7047–7057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragoman, D.

D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

P. Maraghechi, A. Y. Elezzabi, “Experimental confirmation of design techniques for effective bow-tie antenna lengths at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(7), 897–901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ewert, U.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Fischer, B. M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hangyo, M.

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 740–775 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

H. Makabe, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization state measurement of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by three-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11650–11657 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 26, 547–556 (2006).

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1727–1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, A.

Helm, H.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirota, Y.

Hoshina, H.

Hussain, A.

Jagadish, C.

Jansen, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

Jördens, C.

K. Wiesauer, C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 663–681 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Keiding, S.

Khare, S.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kono, J.

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, “An ion-implanted InP receiver for polarization resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7047–7057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macpherson, E.

Makabe, H.

Maraghechi, P.

P. Maraghechi, A. Y. Elezzabi, “Experimental confirmation of design techniques for effective bow-tie antenna lengths at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(7), 897–901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moneke, M.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morris, C. M.

Nagashima, T.

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 740–775 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 26, 547–556 (2006).

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1727–1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nashima, S.

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1727–1738 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neshat, M.

M. Neshat, N. P. Armitage, “Developments in THz range ellipsometry,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 682–708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Neshat, N. P. Armitage, “Improved measurement of polarization state in terahertz polarization spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1811–1813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortner, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otani, C.

Oyama, Y.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reid, C.

Reisecker, V.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romeike, D.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rutz, F.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Scheller, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: a review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417(1-2), 48–60 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stier, A. V.

Stoik, C.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoik, C. D.

Tan, H. H.

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 740–775 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

H. Makabe, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization state measurement of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by three-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11650–11657 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 26, 547–556 (2006).

Thoman, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Exter, M.

Wallace, V. P.

Walther, M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Seo, “Polarization sensitive THz absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of uniaxially deformed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene,” NDT Int. 43(4), 329–333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wiesauer, K.

K. Wiesauer, C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 663–681 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wietzke, S.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

Zentgraf, T.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 70(3), 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves (2)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 26, 547–556 (2006).

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymer products,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 27(4), 547–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Pharm. (1)

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E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(4), 418–430 (2012) (and references therein).
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J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (6)

T. Nagashima, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, “Polarization-sensitive THz-TDS and its application to anisotropy sensing,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 740–775 (2013) (and references therein).
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J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
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K. Wiesauer, C. Jördens, “Recent advances in birefringence studies at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 663–681 (2013) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

T. Arikawa, Q. Zhang, L. Ren, A. A. Belyanin, J. Kono, “Review of anisotropic terahertz material response,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(11), 724–739 (2013).
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P. Maraghechi, A. Y. Elezzabi, “Experimental confirmation of design techniques for effective bow-tie antenna lengths at THz frequencies,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 32(7), 897–901 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Hangyo, T. Nagashima, S. Nashima, “Spectroscopy by pulsed terahertz radiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1727–1738 (2002).
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C. Stoik, M. Bohn, J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
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Opt. Express (5)

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D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004) (and references therein).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microfabricated 4-CD (a)-(d) and scheme of its testing. (a) Photomask geometry in mm; (b) total view of the microfabricated detector chip (6 × 6 mm) with bowie-tie electrodes, lead lines, and 1 × 1 mm contact pads; (c) enlarged view of the ~70 µm bowie-tie flares and lead lines; (d) the magnified detector center; (e) schematic diagram of the optical setup with wire-grid polarizers. Note that (c) and (d) show the electrode structure at the center of (b) with different magnifications. See text for more details and abbreviations.

Fig.
							2
Fig. 2

FDTD simulation results of electric field intensity and vector distributions at the center of the 4-CD. The THz source with linearly polarized output is behind the picture plane. The schematic instantaneous charges on bowie-tie antenna tips (in blue color), which are generated by incident electric field (red arrows), are also shown to explain the detection principle with two electric circuits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The FDTD simulation results for intensity and spectral responses of 4-CD, which are observed for different incident THz illumination angles, antenna geometries, and observation positions between antenna electrodes: (a) the log( | E xy | 2 ) map plots at α = 0° and 45°; the legends for plots on (b) and (c) correspond to the l, α, E component (see actual values on scale labels), and xyz coordinate of observation point on (a) and Fig. 2. For example, the label “70, 0, Ex, x=y=z=0” corresponds to l = 70 µm, α = 0°, E component along the x-axis, and observation point at the coordinate origin. See text for used abbreviations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The (a) time-domain and (b) frequency-domain responses of 4-CD for DE radiation. The spectral signature of DE/DD pair is also shown for comparison in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between ideal linear angular response and real experimental one with (a) nonlinear and (b) linear curve fittings on the same data.

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