Abstract

We present, for the first time, the complete pulse characterization of the infrared pulse after generating harmonics. A systematic study of the high harmonic generation process, and the generating infrared pulse characterization, has been done by changing the focus-gas-jet relative position. We have concluded, supported by nonlinear propagation simulations, that there is a correlation between the spectral and temporal nonlinear evolution of the infrared generating field and the structures shown in the harmonic signal. We have identified two different pressure regimes: the low pressure regime, characterized by the effects produced by the plasma generated by the infrared pulse, and the high pressure regime where the plasma and the Kerr effect generated by the infrared field are both present. These observations highlight the important role played by the nonlinear propagation of the generating field in the high harmonic generation context.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 595–601 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389–486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Painter, M. Adams, N. Brimhall, E. Christensen, G. Giraud, N. Powers, M. Turner, M. Ware, J. Peatross, “Direct observation of laser filamentation in high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3471–3473 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
  13. A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Odhner, R. J. Levis, “Direct phase and amplitude characterization of femtosecond laser pulses undergoing filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1775–1777 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Minardi, A. Gopal, A. Couairon, G. Tamoašuskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, P. Di Trapani, “Accurate retrieval of pulse-splitting dynamics of a femtosecond filament in water by time-resolved shadowgraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3020–3022 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, J. San Román, O. Varela, L. Roso, “Spatiotemporal evolution of light during propagation in filamentation regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1807–1816 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, O. Varela, J. Hernández-Toro, C. Méndez, J. San Román, A. Zaïr, L. Roso, “Spatiotemporal amplitude-and-phase reconstruction by Fourier-transform of interference spectra of high-complex beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 933–940 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. We estimate the intensity at the focus by doing linear Gaussian propagation. This estimation is clearly overestimating the intensity because assume perfect Gaussian spatial shape, aberration free focusing and linear propagation. Any of this effects will deteriorate the focusing process producing a bigger focal spot and a lower intensity.
  21. P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Dalgarno, A.E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 259, 424–429 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Borzsonyi, Z. Heiner, A.P. Kovacs, M. P. Kalashnikov, K. Osvay, “Measurement of pressure dependent nonlinear refractive index of inert gases,” Opt. Express 18, 25847–25855 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382384 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Odhner, R. J. Levis, “Direct phase and amplitude characterization of femtosecond laser pulses undergoing filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Painter, M. Adams, N. Brimhall, E. Christensen, G. Giraud, N. Powers, M. Turner, M. Ware, J. Peatross, “Direct observation of laser filamentation in high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3471–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1960 (1)

A. Dalgarno, A.E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 259, 424–429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M.

Alonso, B.

Altucci, C.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borzsonyi, A.

Boscolo, A.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

Braun, A.

Brée, C.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brimhall, N.

Bruzzese, R.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, P.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z. H.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheriaux, G.

Christensen, E.

Cocke, C. L.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

Dalgarno, A.

A. Dalgarno, A.E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 259, 424–429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

De Lisio, C.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Demircan, A.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

DiMauro, L. F.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

Giraud, G.

Gopal, A.

Gu, X.

Heiner, Z.

Hernández-Toro, J.

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jara, H.

Jin, C.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Johann, U.

Kalashnikov, M. P.

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keitel, C. H.

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Kingston, A.E.

A. Dalgarno, A.E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 259, 424–429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kovacev, M.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, A.P.

Kulander, K. C.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurent, G.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

Levis, R. J.

Li, H.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Luk, T. S.

McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Méndez, C.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J.V.

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Murnane, M. M.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Odhner, J.

Osvay, K.

Painter, J. C.

Peatross, J.

Piskarskas, R.

Poletto, L.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Powers, N.

Protopapas, M.

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C. K.

Roso, L.

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

San Román, J.

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnürer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, E.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sola, I. J.

Squier, J.

Stagira, S.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steingrube, D. S.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stibenz, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamoašuskas, G.

Tondello, G.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Turner, M.

Varela, O.

Villoresi, P.

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vockerodt, T.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ware, M.

Wright, E.M.

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaïr, A.

Zhang, Z.

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhanvoronkov, N.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, F.

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. B (1)

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B 45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Las. Phys. (1)

C. Brée, A. Demircan, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, G. Steinmeyer, “Plasma induced pulse breaking in filamentary self-compression,” Las. Phys. 20, 1107–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser and Particle Beams (1)

P. Ceccherini, A. Boscolo, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Gas medium ionization and harmonic wavelength tunability in high-order harmonic generation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser and Particle Beams 18, 477–482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

F. Zhong, J. Deng, X. Hu, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, “The effect of ionization of gases on the high harmonic splitting,” Phys. Lett. A 278, 35–43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhanvoronkov, G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

A. Dalgarno, A.E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 259, 424–429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

We estimate the intensity at the focus by doing linear Gaussian propagation. This estimation is clearly overestimating the intensity because assume perfect Gaussian spatial shape, aberration free focusing and linear propagation. Any of this effects will deteriorate the focusing process producing a bigger focal spot and a lower intensity.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used in the laboratory. The incoming pulse is divided into the test and reference pulse. The former is used to generate the high-order harmonics. The later is first temporally characterized with a GRENOUILLE and then is used to measure the test pulse with spectral interferometry

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left and right column represent the 0.01 and 0.05 atm case, respectively. The top figures represent the temporal structure of the on-axis intensity at different propagation positions around the focus. The bottom figures represent the corresponding spectral structure of the above figures. All the pictures are shown in logarithmic scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The thick (blue) and thin (green) solid curves represents the temporal intensity structure at 15 mm after the focus at the two different pressure regimes, the low pressure and the higher pressure regime, respectively. The thick (red) and thin (cyan) dashed curves correspond to the same two different pressure regimes but switching off the Kerr nonlinearity, thus using n2 = 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-order harmonics spectra obtained for each position of the focus. The harmonics shown are 13th, 15th, 17th and 19th of 795 nm. In the horizontal axis is presented the harmonic energy, while the vertical axis corresponds to the focus-gas-jet relative position, z. The z < 0 values represent the positions where the laser-beam-waist is placed before the gas-jet and vice versa. The side color bar represents the harmonics signal

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The left figure represents the normalized temporal intensity characterization of the infrared pulse while z is being varied. The right axis, z, indicates the focus-gas-jet relative position while the left axis shows the temporal reconstruction using STARFISH for each position. The right figure corresponds to the spectrum of the IR pulse after interacting with the gas. The right axis corresponds to the focus-gas-jet relative position and the left axis represents the spectral wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Temporal characterization of the infrared pulse for different z-positions of the focus. In color we show the instantaneous wavelength of the pulse, from 780 nm (blue) to 820 nm (red). (b) Measured infrared spectrum for each position. (c) HHG signal obtained.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E z = i 2 k 0 T 1 ( 2 r 2 + 1 r r ) E + n = 2 i n + 1 n ! ( n k ω n ) ω 0 n E t n + T N L ( E ) ,
T N L ( E ) = K ( E ) + I ( E ) + A ( E ) ,
K ( E ) = i ω 0 n 2 c T [ | E | 2 E ]
I ( E ) = σ 2 ( 1 + i ω 0 τ C ) T 1 [ ρ E ]
A ( E ) = 1 2 W ( E ) U | E | 2 ( ρ a t ρ ) E
E ( ρ , t , z = 0 ) = E 0 exp ( ρ 4 / w 0 4 ) exp ( t 2 / t p 2 ) exp ( i k 0 ρ 2 / 2 f )

Metrics