Abstract

We have temporally characterized, dispersion compensated and carrier-envelope phase stabilized 1.4-cycle pulses (3.2 fs) with 160 µJ of energy at 722 nm using a minimal and convenient dispersion-scan setup. The setup is all inline, does not require interferometric beamsplitting, and uses components available in most laser laboratories. Broadband minimization of third-order dispersion using propagation in water enabled reducing the compressed pulse duration from 3.8 to 3.2 fs with the same set of chirped mirrors. Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of the octave-spanning pulses was also performed by the dispersion-scan setup. This unprecedentedly simple and reliable approach provides reproducible CEP-stabilized pulses in the single-cycle regime for applications such as CEP-sensitive spectroscopy and isolated attosecond pulse generation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, J. W. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Adachi, N. Ishii, Y. Nomura, Y. Kobayashi, J. Itatani, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “1.2 mJ sub-4-fs source at 1 kHz from an ionizing gas,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 980–982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 39(15), 2586–2631 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

Ahmad, I.

Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso, B.

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, C.

Arnold, C. L.

Arrell, C. A.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Cirmi, G.

Coello, Y.

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo, H.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantus, M.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farinello, P.

Fordell, T.

Frank, F.

Gagnon, J.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grguraš, I.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassan, M. T.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-W.

Ishii, N.

Itatani, J.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Krausz, F.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pervak, I. Ahmad, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Tikhonravov, F. Krausz, “Double-angle multilayer mirrors with smooth dispersion characteristics,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7943–7951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

Leone, S. R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, Z.-H.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lozovoy, V. V.

Luu, T. T.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

Marangos, J. P.

Miller, T. L.

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miranda, M.

Moses, J.

Moulet, A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, Y.

Okell, W. A.

Pabst, S.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pervak, I. Ahmad, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Tikhonravov, F. Krausz, “Double-angle multilayer mirrors with smooth dispersion characteristics,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7943–7951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohringer, N.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

San Román, J.

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Santra, R.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, F.

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Miranda, C. L. Arnold, T. Fordell, F. Silva, B. Alonso, R. Weigand, A. L’Huillier, H. Crespo, “Characterization of broadband few-cycle laser pulses with the d-scan technique,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18732–18743 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sola, Í. J.

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Spatiotemporal characterization of few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17880–17893 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suda, A.

A. Suda, T. Takeda, “Effects of nonlinear chirp on the self-phase modulation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Appl. Sciences 2(4), 549–557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

A. Suda, T. Takeda, “Effects of nonlinear chirp on the self-phase modulation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Appl. Sciences 2(4), 549–557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Tisch, J. W.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

Weigand, R.

Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witting, T.

Xu, B.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 39(15), 2586–2631 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 39(15), 2586–2631 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, V. Pervak, J. Rauschenberger, J. San Román, Í. J. Sola, H. Crespo, “Characterization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a hollow-core fiber compressor in the spatiotemporal and spatiospectral domains,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 105–114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Sciences

A. Suda, T. Takeda, “Effects of nonlinear chirp on the self-phase modulation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Appl. Sciences 2(4), 549–557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. Krausz, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the d-scan setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Black line: Typical spectrum generated in the HF compressor, supporting a 1.9 fs pulse at 690 nm. Dashed line: Typical spectrum, after propagation through the wedges and the chirped mirrors, supporting a 2.9 fs pulse at 722 nm. (b) Theoretical d-scan trace calculated from the spectrum in (a) (dashed line) and assuming a flat spectral phase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured d-scan trace of a few-cycle laser oscillator with a smooth spectral phase, as used in [11], with mirror angles adjusted to within ± 2 degrees. (b) The same measurement, after tweaking the chirped mirror angles to minimize residual phase oscillations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) to (c) d-scans for increasing prism insertion in the prism compressor. The tilt of the high intensity part of the trace goes through a minimum, as shown in (b), corresponding to minimum TOD and best overall compression.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative measured (a) and retrieved (b) d-scans for the setup in Fig. 1. (c) Measured spectral intensity (black) and retrieved phase (thick red line, with the standard deviation indicated by thin red lines). (d) Retrieved electric field of the pulses for the BK7 wedge insertion that minimizes the intensity FWHM duration, corresponding to a 3.8 fs pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

GVD and TOD values at 800 nm for materials commonly available in optical laboratories; values for water taken from [19]. The GVD/TOD ratio of BK7 is represented by the blue dashed line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured (a) and retrieved (b) d-scans for the setup in Fig. 1, with an additional 4 mm of propagation through water and 4 additional chirped mirror bounces. (c) Measured spectral intensity (black) and retrieved phase (thick red line, with the standard deviation indicated by thin red lines). (d) Retrieved temporal profile for the BK7 insertion that minimizes the intensity FWHM duration, corresponding to a 3.2 fs, 1.4-cycle pulse.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Illustration of the SFG nature of the d-scan trace. a) Retrieved phase (black) and perturbed phases (5 fs delay above 950 nm – red; 3 fs delay below 550 nm – blue). b) Absolute difference between measured and calculated trace for the retrieved phase, scaled by the peak of the measured trace, corresponding to a total error of 0.7%. c) Similar to b) but for the phase perturbed below 550 nm. Features with more than 10% amplitude appear at the SFG wavelengths between the whole spectrum and the <550 nm components, corresponding to a total error of 2.3%. d) Similar to b) but for the phase perturbed above 950 nm, corresponding to a total error of 2.2%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CEP jitter evolution over 100 minutes, demonstrating a stability of 140 mrad (integrated over 4 shots).

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