Abstract

In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

H. Z. Jiang, H. J. Zhao, X. D. Li, “High dynamic range fringe acquisition: a novel 3-D scanning technique for high-reflective surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50(10), 1484–1493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

E. Hu, Y. He, W. Wu, “Further study of the phase-recovering algorithm for saturated fringe patterns with a larger saturation coefficient in the projection grating phase-shifting profilometry,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(14), 1290–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Gorthi, P. Rastogi, “Fringe projection techniques: whither we are,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 133–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Waddington, J. Kofman, “Analysis of measurement sensitivity to illuminance and fringe-pattern gray levels for fringe-pattern projection adaptive to ambient lighting,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 251–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Zhang, S. Yau, “High dynamic range scanning technique,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 033604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 47(5), 053604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Chen, Y. He, E. Hu, “Phase deviation analysis and phase retrieval for partial intensity saturation in phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3087–3090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Jeong, D. Hong, H. Cho, “Measurement of partially specular objects by controlling imaging range,” Proc. SPIE 6718, 671808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45(8), 83601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Salvi, J. Pagés, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Pattern Recognit. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. M. Kowarschik, J. Gerber, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Adaptive optical three-dimensional measurement with structured light,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 150–158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. R. Coggrave, J. M. Huntley, “High-speed surface profilometer based on a spatial light modulator and pipeline image processor,” Opt. Eng. 38(9), 1573–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1985 (1)

S. Suzuki, K. Abe, “Topological structural analysis of digitized binary images by border following,” Comput. Vision Graph 30(1), 32–46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Abe, K.

S. Suzuki, K. Abe, “Topological structural analysis of digitized binary images by border following,” Comput. Vision Graph 30(1), 32–46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Batlle, J.

J. Salvi, J. Pagés, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Pattern Recognit. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. He, E. Hu, “Phase deviation analysis and phase retrieval for partial intensity saturation in phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3087–3090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

J. Jeong, D. Hong, H. Cho, “Measurement of partially specular objects by controlling imaging range,” Proc. SPIE 6718, 671808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coggrave, C. R.

C. R. Coggrave, J. M. Huntley, “High-speed surface profilometer based on a spatial light modulator and pipeline image processor,” Opt. Eng. 38(9), 1573–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q. Y.

Gerber, J.

R. M. Kowarschik, J. Gerber, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Adaptive optical three-dimensional measurement with structured light,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 150–158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gorthi, S. S.

S. S. Gorthi, P. Rastogi, “Fringe projection techniques: whither we are,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 133–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halioua, M.

He, Y.

E. Hu, Y. He, W. Wu, “Further study of the phase-recovering algorithm for saturated fringe patterns with a larger saturation coefficient in the projection grating phase-shifting profilometry,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(14), 1290–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Y. He, E. Hu, “Phase deviation analysis and phase retrieval for partial intensity saturation in phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3087–3090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, D.

J. Jeong, D. Hong, H. Cho, “Measurement of partially specular objects by controlling imaging range,” Proc. SPIE 6718, 671808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

E. Hu, Y. He, W. Wu, “Further study of the phase-recovering algorithm for saturated fringe patterns with a larger saturation coefficient in the projection grating phase-shifting profilometry,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(14), 1290–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Y. He, E. Hu, “Phase deviation analysis and phase retrieval for partial intensity saturation in phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3087–3090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45(8), 83601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huntley, J. M.

C. R. Coggrave, J. M. Huntley, “High-speed surface profilometer based on a spatial light modulator and pipeline image processor,” Opt. Eng. 38(9), 1573–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

J. Jeong, D. Hong, H. Cho, “Measurement of partially specular objects by controlling imaging range,” Proc. SPIE 6718, 671808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. Z.

H. Z. Jiang, H. J. Zhao, X. D. Li, “High dynamic range fringe acquisition: a novel 3-D scanning technique for high-reflective surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50(10), 1484–1493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kofman, J.

C. Waddington, J. Kofman, “Analysis of measurement sensitivity to illuminance and fringe-pattern gray levels for fringe-pattern projection adaptive to ambient lighting,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 251–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R. M.

R. M. Kowarschik, J. Gerber, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Adaptive optical three-dimensional measurement with structured light,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 150–158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

H. Z. Jiang, H. J. Zhao, X. D. Li, “High dynamic range fringe acquisition: a novel 3-D scanning technique for high-reflective surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50(10), 1484–1493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 47(5), 053604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. H.

Liu, H. C.

Liu, X. Y.

Notni, G.

R. M. Kowarschik, J. Gerber, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Adaptive optical three-dimensional measurement with structured light,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 150–158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pagés, J.

J. Salvi, J. Pagés, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Pattern Recognit. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D. W.

Rastogi, P.

S. S. Gorthi, P. Rastogi, “Fringe projection techniques: whither we are,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 133–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reich, C.

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, R.

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salvi, J.

J. Salvi, J. Pagés, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Pattern Recognit. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, W.

R. M. Kowarschik, J. Gerber, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Adaptive optical three-dimensional measurement with structured light,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 150–158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 47(5), 053604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, K. Abe, “Topological structural analysis of digitized binary images by border following,” Comput. Vision Graph 30(1), 32–46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thesing, J.

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Waddington, C.

C. Waddington, J. Kofman, “Analysis of measurement sensitivity to illuminance and fringe-pattern gray levels for fringe-pattern projection adaptive to ambient lighting,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 251–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 47(5), 053604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 47(5), 053604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

E. Hu, Y. He, W. Wu, “Further study of the phase-recovering algorithm for saturated fringe patterns with a larger saturation coefficient in the projection grating phase-shifting profilometry,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(14), 1290–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yau, S.

S. Zhang, S. Yau, “High dynamic range scanning technique,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 033604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, S. Yau, “High dynamic range scanning technique,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 033604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45(8), 83601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. J.

H. Z. Jiang, H. J. Zhao, X. D. Li, “High dynamic range fringe acquisition: a novel 3-D scanning technique for high-reflective surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50(10), 1484–1493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Comput. Vision Graph (1)

S. Suzuki, K. Abe, “Topological structural analysis of digitized binary images by border following,” Comput. Vision Graph 30(1), 32–46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Chen, Y. He, E. Hu, “Phase deviation analysis and phase retrieval for partial intensity saturation in phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3087–3090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (6)

S. Zhang, S. Yau, “High dynamic range scanning technique,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 033604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kowarschik, J. Gerber, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Adaptive optical three-dimensional measurement with structured light,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 150–158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 47(5), 053604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 45(8), 83601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Coggrave, J. M. Huntley, “High-speed surface profilometer based on a spatial light modulator and pipeline image processor,” Opt. Eng. 38(9), 1573–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39(1), 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (3)

C. Waddington, J. Kofman, “Analysis of measurement sensitivity to illuminance and fringe-pattern gray levels for fringe-pattern projection adaptive to ambient lighting,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 251–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Gorthi, P. Rastogi, “Fringe projection techniques: whither we are,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 133–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Jiang, H. J. Zhao, X. D. Li, “High dynamic range fringe acquisition: a novel 3-D scanning technique for high-reflective surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50(10), 1484–1493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

E. Hu, Y. He, W. Wu, “Further study of the phase-recovering algorithm for saturated fringe patterns with a larger saturation coefficient in the projection grating phase-shifting profilometry,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(14), 1290–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recognit. (1)

J. Salvi, J. Pagés, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Pattern Recognit. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Jeong, D. Hong, H. Cho, “Measurement of partially specular objects by controlling imaging range,” Proc. SPIE 6718, 671808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Waddington and J. Kofman, “Saturation avoidance by adaptive fringe projection in phase-shifting 3D surface-shape measurement,” InProceedings of IEEE Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Moré, “The Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm, Implementation, and Theory,” in Numerical Analysis, G. A. Watson, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a camera-projector system for 3D surface-shape measurement showing a fringe-pattern intensity profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Truncated fringe-pattern intensity profile (flat regions) due to image saturation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A single vertical fringe pattern and corresponding captured image in planar board measurement with no AFPP: (a) fringe pattern with global MIGL 255, (b) captured image of planar board with projection of the pattern in (a), (c) absolute phase map of planar board from (b), (d) fringe pattern with global MIGL 120, (e) captured image of planar board with projection of the pattern in (d), (f) absolute phase map of planar board from (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of planar board measurement with global MIGL 255 for: (a)-(c) black region: (a) 3D point cloud data, (b) point cloud view of board showing measurement errors in colour, and (c) measurement errors; and (d)-(f) white regions: (d) 3D point cloud data, (e) point cloud view of board showing measurement errors in colour, and (f) measurement errors. Note that scales are different for black and white regions because of the size of errors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of planar board measurement with global MIGL 120 for: (a)-(c) black region: (a) 3D point cloud data, (b) point cloud view of board showing measurement errors in colour, and (c) measurement errors; and (d)-(f) white regions: (d) 3D point cloud data, (e) point cloud view of board showing measurement errors in colour, and (f) measurement errors. Note that scales are different for black and white regions because of the size of errors. Scales for Figs. 5(d)-5(f) are the same as in Figs. 4(a)-4(c), where the errors were low.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of planar board measurement with simplified AFPP: (a) 3D point cloud data of entire surface, (b) point cloud view of board showing measurement errors in colour for entire surface. Scales for Figs. 6(a)-6(b) are the same as in Figs. 5(d)-5(e) and Figs. 4(a)-4(b), where the errors were low.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A single adapted vertical fringe pattern and corresponding captured image of the fringe pattern on the board using AFPP: (a) fringe pattern with adapted MIGLs, (b) captured image of the planar board with projection of the pattern in (a), (c) absolute phase map of the planar board from (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of planar board measurement with AFPP: (a) 3D point cloud data of entire surface, (b) point cloud view of board showing measurement errors in colour for entire surface. Scales for Figs. 8(a)-8(b) are the same as in Figs. 6(a)-6(b), Figs. 5(d)-5(e), and Figs. 4(a)-4(b), where the errors were low.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fringe-pattern projection and camera-image capture in measurement of wooden mask using AFPP: (a) wooden-mask image, (b) camera-captured image of vertical fringe pattern on wooden mask showing saturation, (c) camera mask image with saturated-pixel clusters, (d) camera image contours of saturated-pixel clusters, (e) projector image matching contours corresponding to contours in (d), (f) projector mask image with matching clusters corresponding to saturated-pixel clusters in (c), (g) vertical fringe pattern with adapted MIGLs at matching projector-image clusters in (f), (h) camera-captured image of fringe pattern on wooden mask showing no saturation with projection of adapted MIGLs in (g).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Results of the wooden mask measurement: view of raw 3D point cloud data: (a) with global MIGL 255, (b) with MIGL 255 at unsaturated regions and MIGL 120 at previously saturated regions (black holes) in (a), (c) with MIGL 255 at unsaturated regions and adapted MIGLs by AFPP at previously saturated regions in (a), (d) alternate view with AFPP, and (e) colour representation of the wooden mask range image showing depth (Z) values of all measured points with AFPP. (No smoothing was applied in all figures).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Absolute phase maps of the wooden mask: (a) for global MIGL 255, (b) for global MIGL 120, and (c) for AFPP adapted MIGLs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Measurement Accuracy in Fringe-Pattern Projection Methods

Equations (7)

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I i ( x p , y p )= I Min +( I Max I Min )× { 0.5+0.5×cos[ Φ( x p , y p )+ δ i ] } 1/γ ,i=1,2,...,N
Φ( x c , y c )= tan 1 ( i=1 N I i ( x c , y c )sin δ i i=1 N I i ( x c , y c )cos δ i )
M C ( x c , y c )={ 255, forany I ijq ( x c , y c )=255 0, otherwise
{ x p = T× ϕ V ( x c , y c ) / 2π y p =T× ϕ H ( x c , y c ) / 2π
I ijq,k ( x p , y p )= a 1,k × I ijq,k a 2,k ( x c , y c )+ a 3,k
argmin { a 1,k , a 2,k , a 3,k } { i[1,N],j[1,J],q[1,Q] [ [ a 1,k 1 ×( I ijq,k ( x p , y p ) a 3,k ) ] 1/ a 2,k I ijq,k ( x c , y c ) ] 2 }
I Max,k = a 1,k × 254 a 2,k + a 3,k

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