Abstract

Recently, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used for plasmonic rulers to measure the nonlocal influence on the Au nanoparticle - metal film resonance wavelength shift and probe the ultimate field enhancement. Here we examine the influence of surface roughness on this plasmonic ruler in the nonlocal regime by comparing plasmonic resonance shifts for as-deposited and for ultra-flat Au films. It is shown that the resonance shift is larger for ultra-flat films, suggesting that there is not the saturation from nonlocal effects previously reported for the spacer range from 0.7 nm to 1.6 nm. We attribute the previously reported saturation to the planarization of the as-deposited films by thinner SAMs, as measured here by atomic-force microscopy. This work is of interest both in probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement with SAMs for applications in Raman and nonlinear optics, but also in the study of SAMs planarization as a function surface roughness.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. J. Orendorff, A. Gole, T. K. Sau, C. J. Murphy, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayers: Sandwich architecture and nanoparticle shape dependence,” Anal. Chem. 77(10), 3261–3266 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Theiss, P. Pavaskar, P. M. Echternach, R. E. Muller, S. B. Cronin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with nanometer separation for high-performance SERS substrates,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2749–2754 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Min, Y. Pang, D. J. Collins, N. A. Kuklev, K. Gottselig, D. W. Steuerman, R. Gordon, “Substrate-based platform for boosting the surface-enhanced Raman of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1648–1655 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ahmed, R. Gordon, “Directivity enhanced Raman spectroscopy using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1800–1803 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ahmed, R. Gordon, “Single molecule directivity enhanced Raman scattering using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2625–2630 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically fabricated optical antennas with gaps well below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263302 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Gap plasmons and near-field enhancement in closely packed sub-10 nm gap resonators,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5449–5453 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. C. Marinica, A. K. Kazansky, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum plasmonics: Nonlinear effects in the field enhancement of a plasmonic nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1333–1339 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Fuchs, F. Claro, “Multipolar response of small metallic spheres: Nonlocal theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(8), 3722–3727 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. David, F. J. García de Abajo, “Spatial nonlocality in the optical response of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19470–19475 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Huang, F. Bao, S. He, “Nonlocal effects in a hybrid plasmonic waveguide for nanoscale confinement,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1430–1439 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Toscano, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, M. Wubs, “Modified field enhancement and extinction by plasmonic nanowire dimers due to nonlocal response,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4176–4188 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27306–27325 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Robust subnanometric plasmon ruler by rescaling of the nonlocal optical response,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263901 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Stella, P. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, A. Rubio, P. García-González, “Performance of nonlocal optics when applied to plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(17), 8941–8949 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491(7425), 574–577 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat Commun 3, 825 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. A. Scholl, A. García-Etxarri, A. L. Koh, J. A. Dionne, “Observation of quantum tunneling between two plasmonic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 564–569 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, A. Hucknall, S. D. Wolter, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, A. Chilkoti, “Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9237–9246 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Y.-J. Tsai, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave excitation,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1757–1764 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, C. E. D. Chidsey, “Spontaneously organized molecular assemblies. 4. Structural characterization of n-alkyl thiol monolayers on gold by optical ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109(12), 3559–3568 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Ulman, “Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers,” Chem. Rev. 96(4), 1533–1554 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Godin, P. J. Williams, V. Tabard-Cossa, O. Laroche, L. Y. Beaulieu, R. B. Lennox, P. Grütter, “Surface stress, kinetics, and structure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 20(17), 7090–7096 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: A transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. P. Gupta, A. Ulman, S. Fanfan, A. Korniakov, K. Loos, “Mixed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on ultrasmooth gold do not exhibit contact-angle hysteresis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(1), 4–5 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. Stamou, D. Gourdon, M. Liley, N. A. Burnham, A. Kulik, H. Vogel, C. Duschl, “Uniformly flat gold surfaces: Imaging the domain structure of organic monolayers using scanning force microscopy,” Langmuir 13(9), 2425–2428 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  42. G. A. Cervantes Tellez, S. Hassan, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, R. Gordon, “Atomically flat symmetric elliptical nanohole arrays in a gold film for ultrasensitive refractive index sensing,” Lab Chip 13(13), 2541–2546 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

G. A. Cervantes Tellez, S. Hassan, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, R. Gordon, “Atomically flat symmetric elliptical nanohole arrays in a gold film for ultrasensitive refractive index sensing,” Lab Chip 13(13), 2541–2546 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Gap plasmons and near-field enhancement in closely packed sub-10 nm gap resonators,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5449–5453 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Robust subnanometric plasmon ruler by rescaling of the nonlocal optical response,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Stella, P. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, A. Rubio, P. García-González, “Performance of nonlocal optics when applied to plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(17), 8941–8949 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Scholl, A. García-Etxarri, A. L. Koh, J. A. Dionne, “Observation of quantum tunneling between two plasmonic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 564–569 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Huang, F. Bao, S. He, “Nonlocal effects in a hybrid plasmonic waveguide for nanoscale confinement,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1430–1439 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27306–27325 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

G. Toscano, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, M. Wubs, “Modified field enhancement and extinction by plasmonic nanowire dimers due to nonlocal response,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4176–4188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491(7425), 574–577 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat Commun 3, 825 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, A. Hucknall, S. D. Wolter, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, A. Chilkoti, “Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9237–9246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Y.-J. Tsai, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave excitation,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1757–1764 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Marinica, A. K. Kazansky, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum plasmonics: Nonlinear effects in the field enhancement of a plasmonic nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1333–1339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmed, R. Gordon, “Single molecule directivity enhanced Raman scattering using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2625–2630 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. David, F. J. García de Abajo, “Spatial nonlocality in the optical response of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19470–19475 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically fabricated optical antennas with gaps well below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmed, R. Gordon, “Directivity enhanced Raman spectroscopy using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1800–1803 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Min, Y. Pang, D. J. Collins, N. A. Kuklev, K. Gottselig, D. W. Steuerman, R. Gordon, “Substrate-based platform for boosting the surface-enhanced Raman of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1648–1655 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Theiss, P. Pavaskar, P. M. Echternach, R. E. Muller, S. B. Cronin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with nanometer separation for high-performance SERS substrates,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2749–2754 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: A transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. J. Orendorff, A. Gole, T. K. Sau, C. J. Murphy, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayers: Sandwich architecture and nanoparticle shape dependence,” Anal. Chem. 77(10), 3261–3266 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gupta, A. Ulman, S. Fanfan, A. Korniakov, K. Loos, “Mixed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on ultrasmooth gold do not exhibit contact-angle hysteresis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(1), 4–5 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Godin, P. J. Williams, V. Tabard-Cossa, O. Laroche, L. Y. Beaulieu, R. B. Lennox, P. Grütter, “Surface stress, kinetics, and structure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 20(17), 7090–7096 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Stamou, D. Gourdon, M. Liley, N. A. Burnham, A. Kulik, H. Vogel, C. Duschl, “Uniformly flat gold surfaces: Imaging the domain structure of organic monolayers using scanning force microscopy,” Langmuir 13(9), 2425–2428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Ulman, “Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers,” Chem. Rev. 96(4), 1533–1554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, C. E. D. Chidsey, “Spontaneously organized molecular assemblies. 4. Structural characterization of n-alkyl thiol monolayers on gold by optical ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109(12), 3559–3568 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Fuchs, F. Claro, “Multipolar response of small metallic spheres: Nonlocal theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(8), 3722–3727 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, H.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, A.

A. Ahmed, R. Gordon, “Single molecule directivity enhanced Raman scattering using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2625–2630 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmed, R. Gordon, “Directivity enhanced Raman spectroscopy using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1800–1803 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27306–27325 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Robust subnanometric plasmon ruler by rescaling of the nonlocal optical response,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Marinica, A. K. Kazansky, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum plasmonics: Nonlinear effects in the field enhancement of a plasmonic nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1333–1339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat Commun 3, 825 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491(7425), 574–577 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allara, D. L.

M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, C. E. D. Chidsey, “Spontaneously organized molecular assemblies. 4. Structural characterization of n-alkyl thiol monolayers on gold by optical ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109(12), 3559–3568 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bain, C. D.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Banaee, M. G.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically fabricated optical antennas with gaps well below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, F.

Baumberg, J. J.

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491(7425), 574–577 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaulieu, L. Y.

M. Godin, P. J. Williams, V. Tabard-Cossa, O. Laroche, L. Y. Beaulieu, R. B. Lennox, P. Grütter, “Surface stress, kinetics, and structure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 20(17), 7090–7096 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

G. A. Cervantes Tellez, S. Hassan, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, R. Gordon, “Atomically flat symmetric elliptical nanohole arrays in a gold film for ultrasensitive refractive index sensing,” Lab Chip 13(13), 2541–2546 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

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C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
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J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
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Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: A transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. C. Marinica, A. K. Kazansky, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum plasmonics: Nonlinear effects in the field enhancement of a plasmonic nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1333–1339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Gap plasmons and near-field enhancement in closely packed sub-10 nm gap resonators,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5449–5453 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
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Ming, H.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
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Mock, J. J.

C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Y.-J. Tsai, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave excitation,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1757–1764 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, A. Hucknall, S. D. Wolter, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, A. Chilkoti, “Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9237–9246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N. A.

Muller, R. E.

J. Theiss, P. Pavaskar, P. M. Echternach, R. E. Muller, S. B. Cronin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with nanometer separation for high-performance SERS substrates,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2749–2754 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

C. J. Orendorff, A. Gole, T. K. Sau, C. J. Murphy, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayers: Sandwich architecture and nanoparticle shape dependence,” Anal. Chem. 77(10), 3261–3266 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagpal, P.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27306–27325 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Robust subnanometric plasmon ruler by rescaling of the nonlocal optical response,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Marinica, A. K. Kazansky, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum plasmonics: Nonlinear effects in the field enhancement of a plasmonic nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1333–1339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat Commun 3, 825 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.-H.

C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, S. J.

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orendorff, C. J.

C. J. Orendorff, A. Gole, T. K. Sau, C. J. Murphy, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayers: Sandwich architecture and nanoparticle shape dependence,” Anal. Chem. 77(10), 3261–3266 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

Pavaskar, P.

J. Theiss, P. Pavaskar, P. M. Echternach, R. E. Muller, S. B. Cronin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with nanometer separation for high-performance SERS substrates,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2749–2754 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: A transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, M. D.

M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, C. E. D. Chidsey, “Spontaneously organized molecular assemblies. 4. Structural characterization of n-alkyl thiol monolayers on gold by optical ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109(12), 3559–3568 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prodan, E.

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raza, S.

Reinhard, B. M.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, C.

M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, A.

L. Stella, P. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, A. Rubio, P. García-González, “Performance of nonlocal optics when applied to plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(17), 8941–8949 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sau, T. K.

C. J. Orendorff, A. Gole, T. K. Sau, C. J. Murphy, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayers: Sandwich architecture and nanoparticle shape dependence,” Anal. Chem. 77(10), 3261–3266 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savage, K. J.

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491(7425), 574–577 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholl, J. A.

J. A. Scholl, A. García-Etxarri, A. L. Koh, J. A. Dionne, “Observation of quantum tunneling between two plasmonic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 564–569 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebba, D. S.

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegfried, T.

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Gap plasmons and near-field enhancement in closely packed sub-10 nm gap resonators,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5449–5453 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Gap plasmons and near-field enhancement in closely packed sub-10 nm gap resonators,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5449–5453 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siu, M.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. A.

M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Y.-J. Tsai, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave excitation,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1757–1764 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, A. Hucknall, S. D. Wolter, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, A. Chilkoti, “Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9237–9246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solak, H. H.

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamou, D.

D. Stamou, D. Gourdon, M. Liley, N. A. Burnham, A. Kulik, H. Vogel, C. Duschl, “Uniformly flat gold surfaces: Imaging the domain structure of organic monolayers using scanning force microscopy,” Langmuir 13(9), 2425–2428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stella, L.

L. Stella, P. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, A. Rubio, P. García-González, “Performance of nonlocal optics when applied to plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(17), 8941–8949 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Steuerman, D. W.

Tabard-Cossa, V.

M. Godin, P. J. Williams, V. Tabard-Cossa, O. Laroche, L. Y. Beaulieu, R. B. Lennox, P. Grütter, “Surface stress, kinetics, and structure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 20(17), 7090–7096 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tait, R. N.

G. A. Cervantes Tellez, S. Hassan, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, R. Gordon, “Atomically flat symmetric elliptical nanohole arrays in a gold film for ultrasensitive refractive index sensing,” Lab Chip 13(13), 2541–2546 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. T.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27306–27325 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Robust subnanometric plasmon ruler by rescaling of the nonlocal optical response,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theiss, J.

J. Theiss, P. Pavaskar, P. M. Echternach, R. E. Muller, S. B. Cronin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with nanometer separation for high-performance SERS substrates,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2749–2754 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toscano, G.

Troughton, E. B.

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-J.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Y.-J. Tsai, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave excitation,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1757–1764 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulman, A.

P. Gupta, A. Ulman, S. Fanfan, A. Korniakov, K. Loos, “Mixed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on ultrasmooth gold do not exhibit contact-angle hysteresis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(1), 4–5 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ulman, “Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers,” Chem. Rev. 96(4), 1533–1554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337(6098), 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, H.

D. Stamou, D. Gourdon, M. Liley, N. A. Burnham, A. Kulik, H. Vogel, C. Duschl, “Uniformly flat gold surfaces: Imaging the domain structure of organic monolayers using scanning force microscopy,” Langmuir 13(9), 2425–2428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wallwork, M. L.

M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically fabricated optical antennas with gaps well below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wiener, A.

Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. J.

M. Godin, P. J. Williams, V. Tabard-Cossa, O. Laroche, L. Y. Beaulieu, R. B. Lennox, P. Grütter, “Surface stress, kinetics, and structure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 20(17), 7090–7096 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolter, S. D.

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, A. Hucknall, S. D. Wolter, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, A. Chilkoti, “Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9237–9246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wubs, M.

Xi, Z.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xue, G.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

L. Stella, P. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, A. Rubio, P. García-González, “Performance of nonlocal optics when applied to plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(17), 8941–8949 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically fabricated optical antennas with gaps well below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuloaga, J.

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, A. Hucknall, S. D. Wolter, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, A. Chilkoti, “Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9237–9246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: A common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

C. J. Orendorff, A. Gole, T. K. Sau, C. J. Murphy, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayers: Sandwich architecture and nanoparticle shape dependence,” Anal. Chem. 77(10), 3261–3266 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Ciracì, X. Chen, J. J. Mock, F. McGuire, X. Liu, S.-H. Oh, D. R. Smith, “Film-coupled nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition: Comparison with organic spacing layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023109 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Siegfried, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, O. J. F. Martin, H. Sigg, “Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

A. Ulman, “Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers,” Chem. Rev. 96(4), 1533–1554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, G. M. Whitesides, “Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1103–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M. D. Porter, T. B. Bright, D. L. Allara, C. E. D. Chidsey, “Spontaneously organized molecular assemblies. 4. Structural characterization of n-alkyl thiol monolayers on gold by optical ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109(12), 3559–3568 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Bain, E. B. Troughton, Y. T. Tao, J. Evall, G. M. Whitesides, R. G. Nuzzo, “Formation of monolayer films by the spontaneous assembly of organic thiols from solution onto gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111(1), 321–335 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, A. Ulman, S. Fanfan, A. Korniakov, K. Loos, “Mixed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on ultrasmooth gold do not exhibit contact-angle hysteresis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(1), 4–5 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. David, F. J. García de Abajo, “Spatial nonlocality in the optical response of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19470–19475 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Stella, P. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, A. Rubio, P. García-González, “Performance of nonlocal optics when applied to plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(17), 8941–8949 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

G. A. Cervantes Tellez, S. Hassan, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, R. Gordon, “Atomically flat symmetric elliptical nanohole arrays in a gold film for ultrasensitive refractive index sensing,” Lab Chip 13(13), 2541–2546 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir

D. Stamou, D. Gourdon, M. Liley, N. A. Burnham, A. Kulik, H. Vogel, C. Duschl, “Uniformly flat gold surfaces: Imaging the domain structure of organic monolayers using scanning force microscopy,” Langmuir 13(9), 2425–2428 (1997).
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M. L. Wallwork, D. A. Smith, J. Zhang, J. Kirkham, C. Robinson, “Complex chemical force titration behavior of amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 17(4), 1126–1131 (2001).
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M. Godin, P. J. Williams, V. Tabard-Cossa, O. Laroche, L. Y. Beaulieu, R. B. Lennox, P. Grütter, “Surface stress, kinetics, and structure of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Langmuir 20(17), 7090–7096 (2004).
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Nano Lett.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Y.-J. Tsai, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Probing dynamically tunable localized surface plasmon resonances of film-coupled nanoparticles by evanescent wave excitation,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1757–1764 (2012).
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B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
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R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, D. S. Sebba, S. J. Oldenburg, S.-Y. Chen, A. A. Lazarides, A. Chilkoti, D. R. Smith, “Leveraging nanoscale plasmonic modes to achieve reproducible enhancement of light,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4150–4154 (2010).
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J. Theiss, P. Pavaskar, P. M. Echternach, R. E. Muller, S. B. Cronin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with nanometer separation for high-performance SERS substrates,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2749–2754 (2010).
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Nat Commun

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat Commun 3, 825 (2012).
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Nat. Biotechnol.

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Nature

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491(7425), 574–577 (2012).
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Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

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Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. V. Teperik, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, A. G. Borisov, “Robust subnanometric plasmon ruler by rescaling of the nonlocal optical response,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263901 (2013).
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Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, A. Wiener, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Surface plasmons and nonlocality: A simple model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 093901 (2013).
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A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, “Collection and concentration of light by touching spheres: A transformation optics approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 266807 (2010).
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Plasmonics

X. Wen, Z. Xi, X. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Xue, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, P. Wang, S. Blair, H. Ming, “Plasmonic coupling effect in Ag nanocap-nanohole pairs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Plasmonics 8(2), 225–231 (2013).
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Science

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
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Small

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically fabricated optical antennas with gaps well below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative surface height scans using AFM for Au film. (a) Height profile of a bare commercial Au slide is shown for reference (100 nm thickness, EMF Corp.) with greater roughness than our as-deposited films. (b) Bare as-deposited 30 nm Au film. (c) Bare ultra-flat 30 nm Au film fabricated by template stripping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative surface height scans using AFM for SAMs of amine-terminated alkanethiols with different alkane carbon chain length on as-deposited Au films. (a) c3, (b) c6 and (c) c11.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative surface height scans using AFM for varying SAMs on ultra-flat Au films. (a) c3, (b) c6 and (c) c11.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM measured surface roughness for bare Au and Au with SAMs. Ultra-flat and as-deposited Au films are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optical configuration for the scattering measurements of NPs on metal films. WLS = white light source, L = lens, obj = microscope objective lens, BS = beam splitter. (b) DF scattering image of NPs deposited on the ultra-flat film with 6-amino-1-hexanethiol SAM. The color bar represents the CCD’s digital output. (c) Normalized scattering spectra of NPs deposited on ultra-flat Au films (solid lines) and on as-deposited Au films (dashed lines) for SAMs with different numbers of carbon. (d) Summary of peak positions of plasmonic scattering as a function of the number of carbons including experimental data from Ref. 30 on as-deposited metal films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic showing the planarization – note this is meant to represent random surface roughness and is not for a periodic film. h0 is the SAM’s theoretical height (30° tilted) [28], Δh is the surface roughness of the Au film, Δh′ is the surface roughness with SAMs, h1 is the maximum film-NP distance. (b) Dark-field scattering resonance wavelength as a function of the NP-film distance. Experimental data from Ref. 28 using the theoretical SAM height is also shown. Considering planarization, maximum and minimum thicknesses are shown for as-deposited Au films. Straight line fits on log-log scale are shown. Also shown is the local response theory digitized from Ref. 30.

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