Abstract

We propose a novel method to generate vector beams in planar photonic crystal cavities with multiple missing-hole defects. Simulating the resonant modes in the cavities, we observe that the optical fields in each defect have different phase and polarization state distributions, which promise the compositions of vector beams by the scattered light from the defects. The far-field radiation patterns of the cavity modes calculated via the Sommerfeld diffraction theory present vector beams possessing hollow intensity profiles and polarization singularities. In addition, the extraction efficiencies of the vector beams from the cavities could be improved by modifying the air-holes surrounding the defects. This planar photonic crystal cavity-based vector beam generator may provide useful insights for the on-chip controlling of vector beams in their propagations and interactions with matter.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

X. Jiao, S. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Gan, P. Li, J. Zhao, “Redistributing energy flow and polarization of a focused azimuthally polarized beam with rotationally symmetric sector-shaped obstacles,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1041–1043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kitamura, K. Sakai, N. Takayama, M. Nishimoto, S. Noda, “Focusing properties of vector vortex beams emitted by photonic-crystal lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2421–2423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Haddadi, L. Le-Gratiet, I. Sagnes, F. Raineri, A. Bazin, K. Bencheikh, J. A. Levenson, A. M. Yacomotti, “High quality beaming and efficient free-space coupling in L3 photonic crystal active nanocavities,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18876–18886 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Donato, S. Vasi, R. Sayed, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, A. C. Ferrari, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, “Optical trapping of nanotubes with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3381–3383 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, P. Li, T. Peng, J. L. Zhao, “Generation of arbitrary spatially variant polarization beams with a trapezoid Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21715–21721 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takagi, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, “High Q H1 photonic crystal nanocavities with efficient vertical emission,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28292–28300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

J. Sancho-Parramon, S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwahashi, K. Sakai, Y. Kurosaka, S. Noda, “Centered-rectangular lattice photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 85(3), 035304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wheeldon, H. Schriemer, “The optical forces of vortex arrays in two-dimensional photonic,” Proc. SPIE 7386, 73862P (2009).

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, J. Vucković, “High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14618–14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. B. Phua, W. J. Lai, Y. L. Lim, K. S. Tiaw, B. C. Lim, H. H. Teo, M. H. Hong, “Mimicking optical activity for generating radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 376–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, V. Romano, T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1996

1990

Andreani, L. C.

Arakawa, Y.

H. Takagi, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, “High Q H1 photonic crystal nanocavities with efficient vertical emission,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28292–28300 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazin, A.

Bencheikh, K.

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

Bosch, S.

J. Sancho-Parramon, S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourouina, T.

Boyd, R. W.

Brown, T.

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, G. W.

Chen, J.

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, C. S. Guo, J. Ding, H. T. Wang, “A new type of vector fields with hybrid states of polarization,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10786–10795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clevenson, H.

X. Gan, H. Clevenson, C. C. Tsai, L. Li, D. Englund, “Nanophotonic filters and integrated networks in flexible 2D polymer photonic crystals,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2145 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, C. S. Guo, J. Ding, H. T. Wang, “A new type of vector fields with hybrid states of polarization,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10786–10795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J. P.

Donato, M. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J. P.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

X. Gan, H. Clevenson, C. C. Tsai, L. Li, D. Englund, “Nanophotonic filters and integrated networks in flexible 2D polymer photonic crystals,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2145 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, J. Vucković, “High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14618–14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fält, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, J. Vucković, “High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14618–14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

B. Feng, X. T. Gan, S. Liu, J. Zhao, “Transformation of multi-edge-dislocations to screw-dislocations in optical field,” Acta Phys. Sin. 60(9), 094203 (2011).

Ferrari, A. C.

Feurer, T.

M. Meier, V. Romano, T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, D. H.

Fu, Y. H.

Fushman, I.

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

Gan, X.

Gan, X. T.

B. Feng, X. T. Gan, S. Liu, J. Zhao, “Transformation of multi-edge-dislocations to screw-dislocations in optical field,” Acta Phys. Sin. 60(9), 094203 (2011).

Gerace, D.

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gucciardi, P. G.

Gulde, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C. S.

Haddadi, S.

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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Hu, E. L.

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Imamoglu, A.

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S. Iwahashi, Y. Kurosaka, K. Sakai, K. Kitamura, N. Takayama, S. Noda, “Higher-order vector beams produced by photonic-crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11963–11968 (2011).
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Iwamoto, S.

Jiao, X.

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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Jones, P. H.

Kaminer, I.

Karimi, E.

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Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, L. J.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

Krauss, T. F.

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
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Kumagai, N.

Kurosaka, Y.

S. Iwahashi, K. Sakai, Y. Kurosaka, S. Noda, “Centered-rectangular lattice photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 85(3), 035304 (2012).
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S. Iwahashi, Y. Kurosaka, K. Sakai, K. Kitamura, N. Takayama, S. Noda, “Higher-order vector beams produced by photonic-crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11963–11968 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. J.

Le-Gratiet, L.

Levenson, J. A.

Li, K.

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X. Gan, H. Clevenson, C. C. Tsai, L. Li, D. Englund, “Nanophotonic filters and integrated networks in flexible 2D polymer photonic crystals,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2145 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

Li, S. M.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

Li, Y.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, C. S. Guo, J. Ding, H. T. Wang, “A new type of vector fields with hybrid states of polarization,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10786–10795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. P.

Lim, B. C.

Lim, Y. L.

Liu, A. Q.

Liu, J.

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, T.

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lou, K.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Machula, T.

Majumdar, A.

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makris, K. G.

Maragò, O. M.

Mei, T.

Meier, M.

M. Meier, V. Romano, T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mori, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemirovsky, J.

Ni, W. J.

Nishimoto, M.

Noda, S.

O’Brien, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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O’Faolain, L.

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opheij, A.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ota, Y.

Peng, T.

Petroff, P.

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
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Phua, P. B.

Portalupi, S. L.

Raineri, F.

Reardon, C.

Romano, V.

M. Meier, V. Romano, T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

Sakai, K.

Sancho-Parramon, J.

J. Sancho-Parramon, S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
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Sayed, R.

Schadt, M.

Schriemer, H.

J. Wheeldon, H. Schriemer, “The optical forces of vortex arrays in two-dimensional photonic,” Proc. SPIE 7386, 73862P (2009).

Schulz, S. A.

Segev, M.

Shen, Z. X.

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, P.

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorel, M.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalder, M.

Stoltz, N.

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
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Strain, M. J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takagi, H.

Takayama, N.

Tan, J.

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Teo, H. H.

Thompson, M. G.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

Tiaw, K. S.

Tidwell, S. C.

Toishi, M.

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, J. Vucković, “High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14618–14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. C.

X. Gan, H. Clevenson, C. C. Tsai, L. Li, D. Englund, “Nanophotonic filters and integrated networks in flexible 2D polymer photonic crystals,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2145 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

Tu, C.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasi, S.

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, A. Majumdar, A. Faraon, M. Toishi, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Resonant excitation of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(7), 073904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, J. Vucković, “High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14618–14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
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Waks, E.

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, C. S. Guo, J. Ding, H. T. Wang, “A new type of vector fields with hybrid states of polarization,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10786–10795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, X. L.

S. M. Li, Y. Li, X. L. Wang, L. J. Kong, K. Lou, C. Tu, Y. Tian, H. T. Wang, “Taming the collapse of optical fields,” Sci. Rep. 2, 1007 (2012).

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, C. S. Guo, J. Ding, H. T. Wang, “A new type of vector fields with hybrid states of polarization,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10786–10795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeldon, J.

J. Wheeldon, H. Schriemer, “The optical forces of vortex arrays in two-dimensional photonic,” Proc. SPIE 7386, 73862P (2009).

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B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winger, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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Yacomotti, A. M.

Yamamoto, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
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Youngworth, K.

Yu, S.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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Yu, Y. F.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X. B.

Zhang, X. M.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, J. L.

Zhu, J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

J. Sancho-Parramon, S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
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Acta Phys. Sin.

B. Feng, X. T. Gan, S. Liu, J. Zhao, “Transformation of multi-edge-dislocations to screw-dislocations in optical field,” Acta Phys. Sin. 60(9), 094203 (2011).

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
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A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vučković, “Efficient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073102 (2007).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

M. Meier, V. Romano, T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic- crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
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Nature

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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Opt. Commun.

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, “Tighter focusing of amplitude modulated radially polarized vector beams in ultra-high numerical aperture lens systems,” Opt. Commun. 294, 21–23 (2013).
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Opt. Express

K. Youngworth, T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
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M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, J. Vucković, “High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14618–14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, C. S. Guo, J. Ding, H. T. Wang, “A new type of vector fields with hybrid states of polarization,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10786–10795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
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Y. F. Yu, Y. H. Fu, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, T. Mei, Z. X. Shen, D. P. Tsai, “Pure angular momentum generator using a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21651–21662 (2010).
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S. Iwahashi, Y. Kurosaka, K. Sakai, K. Kitamura, N. Takayama, S. Noda, “Higher-order vector beams produced by photonic-crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11963–11968 (2011).
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S. Haddadi, L. Le-Gratiet, I. Sagnes, F. Raineri, A. Bazin, K. Bencheikh, J. A. Levenson, A. M. Yacomotti, “High quality beaming and efficient free-space coupling in L3 photonic crystal active nanocavities,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18876–18886 (2012).
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S. Liu, P. Li, T. Peng, J. L. Zhao, “Generation of arbitrary spatially variant polarization beams with a trapezoid Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21715–21721 (2012).
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H. Takagi, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, “High Q H1 photonic crystal nanocavities with efficient vertical emission,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28292–28300 (2012).
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W. Zhang, S. Liu, P. Li, X. Jiao, J. Zhao, “Controlling the polarization singularities of the focused azimuthally polarized beams,” Opt. Express 21(1), 974–983 (2013).
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I. Kaminer, J. Nemirovsky, K. G. Makris, M. Segev, “Self-accelerating beams in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8886–8896 (2013).
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S. A. Schulz, T. Machula, E. Karimi, R. W. Boyd, “Integrated multi vector vortex beam generator,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16130–16141 (2013).
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Opt. Lett.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrations of vector beam generation using PPC cavities with multiple point-defects. (a) Air-holes structure of the PPC cavity in the case of N = 6; (b) schematic illustration of the vector beam formation; (c)-(d) near-field (left) and far-field (middle and right) intensity distributions of six dipoles with azimuthal (upper) and radial (lower) polarization states, where the middle and right images show the results calculated by Sommerfeld diffraction theory and COMSOL Multiphysics software, respectively. The locations of the six dipoles are indicated by the red dots in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field distributions of resonant Mode1 (top) and Mode2 (bottom). (a) Intensity distributions of the cavity modes, where the superimposed arrows denote polarization directions and the insets depict the polarization directions of the fields confined in the defects; (b)-(c) phase diagrams of the LH and RH circular polarization components of the cavity modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical simulations of vector beams generated in far-field radiation of resonant Mode1 (top) and Mode2 (bottom). (a) Intensity distributions of the vector beams; (b) phase diagrams of LH and RH circular polarization components of the vector beams; (c) polarization states of the vector beams, where the background and short lines denote the ellipticity and orientation of major axis of polarization ellipse, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the perturbed PPC cavity, where red air-holes are enlarged to have a radius of r′ = 0.32a; (b) near-field intensity distributions of the resonant Mode1 in the perturbed cavity; (c)-(d) FT spectra of Mode1 in the unperturbed and perturbed cavities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field (top) and far-field (bottom) intensity distributions of resonant modes for PPC cavities with (a) N = 3 and (b) N = 4, where 1, 2 corresponding to Mode1 and Mode2, respectively.

Equations (4)

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E j ( x,y,z )= A j ( x 0 , y 0 ,0 )exp( ikR ) R
E( x,y,z )= 1 2π × n × E 0 ( x 0 , y 0 ,0 ) exp( ikR ) R dS
S 0 = E x E x * + E y E y * S 1 = E x E x * E y E y * S 2 = E x E y * + E y E x * S 3 =i( E x E y * E y E x * )
tan2ψ= S 2 / S 1 , sinχ= S 3 / S 0

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