Abstract

The GRACE Follow-On mission will monitor fluctuations in Earth’s geoid using, for the first time, a Laser Ranging Interferometer to measure intersatellite distance changes. We have investigated the coupling between spacecraft rotation and the intersatellite range measurement that is incurred due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances of the Triple Mirror Assembly (TMA), a precision retroreflector to ensure alignment between in- and outgoing laser beams. The three TMA mirror planes intersect in a virtual vertex to which satellite displacements are referenced. TMA manufacturing tolerances degrade this ideal vertex, however, a Point of Minimal Coupling (PMC) between spacecraft rotation and displacement exists. This paper presents the experimental location of the PMC under pitch and yaw rotations for a prototype TMA. Rotations are performed using a hexapod, while displacements are monitored with heterodyne laser interferometry to verify the PMC position. Additionally, the vertex of the three TMA mirror planes is measured using a Coordinate Measuring Machine and compared to the PMC position. In the pitch and yaw axes, the biggest deviation between TMA vertex and PMC was 50 ± 64 μm. Thus, within the measurement uncertainties, no difference between TMA vertex and PMC could be observed. This is a key piece of information for integration of the TMA into the spacecraft: It is sufficient to use the readily-available TMA vertex location to ensure minimal rotation-to-displacement coupling during the mission.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  2. B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Wouters, D. Chambers, E. J. O. Schrama, “GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L20501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”
  18. D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

2012

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. M. Tiwari, J. Wahr, S. Swenson, “Dwindling groundwater resources in northern India, from satellite gravity observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36,L18401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Wouters, D. Chambers, E. J. O. Schrama, “GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L20501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

1999

P. Touboul, E. Willemenot, B. Foulon, V. Josselin, “Accelerometers for CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE space missions: Synergy and evolution,” B. Geofis. Teor. Appl. 40, 321–327 (1999).

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. Z. Anderson, “Alignment of resonant optical cavities,” Appl. Optics 23, 2944–2949 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1958

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, “Alignment of resonant optical cavities,” Appl. Optics 23, 2944–2949 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bamber, J.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Sever, Y.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Bertiger, W.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Bettadpur, S.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Cheng, D. Hudson, G. Kruizinga, “Early results from the gravity recovery and climate experiment,” in Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, J. D. Lafontaine, J. DeLafontaine, J. Treder, M. T. Soyka, J. A. Sims, eds. (Astrodynamics, 2003), 1899–1911.

Blundell, M.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Brister, R.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Brown, J.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Burke, J.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Chambers, D.

B. Wouters, D. Chambers, E. J. O. Schrama, “GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L20501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, D. P.

B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Cheng, D. Hudson, G. Kruizinga, “Early results from the gravity recovery and climate experiment,” in Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, J. D. Lafontaine, J. DeLafontaine, J. Treder, M. T. Soyka, J. A. Sims, eds. (Astrodynamics, 2003), 1899–1911.

Dahle, Ch.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

Desai, S.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Dligatch, S.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Dunn, C.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Elliot, M.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Ettema, J.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrant, D.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Flechtner, F.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleddermann, R.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Folkner, W. M.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foulon, B.

P. Touboul, E. Willemenot, B. Foulon, V. Josselin, “Accelerometers for CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE space missions: Synergy and evolution,” B. Geofis. Teor. Appl. 40, 321–327 (1999).

Francis, S.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Franklin, G.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Gilles, F.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Green, K.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Haines, B.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Harris, I.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Heinzel, G.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

Herding, M.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Hudson, D.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Cheng, D. Hudson, G. Kruizinga, “Early results from the gravity recovery and climate experiment,” in Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, J. D. Lafontaine, J. DeLafontaine, J. Treder, M. T. Soyka, J. A. Sims, eds. (Astrodynamics, 2003), 1899–1911.

Josselin, V.

P. Touboul, E. Willemenot, B. Foulon, V. Josselin, “Accelerometers for CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE space missions: Synergy and evolution,” B. Geofis. Teor. Appl. 40, 321–327 (1999).

Kim, J.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Klipstein, B.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Klipstein, W. M.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, R.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kruizinga, G.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Cheng, D. Hudson, G. Kruizinga, “Early results from the gravity recovery and climate experiment,” in Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, J. D. Lafontaine, J. DeLafontaine, J. Treder, M. T. Soyka, J. A. Sims, eds. (Astrodynamics, 2003), 1899–1911.

Kuang, D.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Kusche, J.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Mc-Clelland, D. E.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Meehan, T.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Meers, B. J.

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, U.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, E.

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mow-Lowry, C.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Nandi, S.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Neumayer, K. H.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Nicklaus, K.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Reigber, C.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ries, J. C.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rignot, E.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, D. I.

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rogstad, T.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Romans, L.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Rüdiger, A.

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schrama, E.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrama, E. J. O.

B. Wouters, D. Chambers, E. J. O. Schrama, “GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L20501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schütze, D.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

Seckold, J.

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Shaddock, D. A.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

Sheard, B. S.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

Smith, C.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Strain, K.

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, S.

V. M. Tiwari, J. Wahr, S. Swenson, “Dwindling groundwater resources in northern India, from satellite gravity observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36,L18401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tapley, B. D.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Cheng, D. Hudson, G. Kruizinga, “Early results from the gravity recovery and climate experiment,” in Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, J. D. Lafontaine, J. DeLafontaine, J. Treder, M. T. Soyka, J. A. Sims, eds. (Astrodynamics, 2003), 1899–1911.

Thomas, J. B.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Thompson, P. F.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, J.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Tiwari, V. M.

V. M. Tiwari, J. Wahr, S. Swenson, “Dwindling groundwater resources in northern India, from satellite gravity observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36,L18401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Touboul, P.

P. Touboul, E. Willemenot, B. Foulon, V. Josselin, “Accelerometers for CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE space missions: Synergy and evolution,” B. Geofis. Teor. Appl. 40, 321–327 (1999).

van de Berg, W. J.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Broeke, M.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Meijgaard, E.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velicogna, I.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahr, J.

V. M. Tiwari, J. Wahr, S. Swenson, “Dwindling groundwater resources in northern India, from satellite gravity observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36,L18401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R. L.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Watkins, M.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Watkins, M. M.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willemenot, E.

P. Touboul, E. Willemenot, B. Foulon, V. Josselin, “Accelerometers for CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE space missions: Synergy and evolution,” B. Geofis. Teor. Appl. 40, 321–327 (1999).

Winkler, W.

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, B.

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wouters, D. Chambers, E. J. O. Schrama, “GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L20501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. C.

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

Wuchenich, D.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

Yoder, P. R.

Appl. Optics

E. Morrison, B. J. Meers, D. I. Robertson, H. Ward, “Automatic alignment of optical interferometers,” Appl. Optics 33, 5041–5049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, “Alignment of resonant optical cavities,” Appl. Optics 23, 2944–2949 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Geofis. Teor. Appl.

P. Touboul, E. Willemenot, B. Foulon, V. Josselin, “Accelerometers for CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE space missions: Synergy and evolution,” B. Geofis. Teor. Appl. 40, 321–327 (1999).

Geophy. Res. Lett.

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Watkins, C. Reigber, “The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 31,L09607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

B. D. Tapley, D. P. Chambers, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, “Large scale ocean circulation from the GRACE GGM01 Geoid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30,2163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Wouters, D. Chambers, E. J. O. Schrama, “GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L20501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Tiwari, J. Wahr, S. Swenson, “Dwindling groundwater resources in northern India, from satellite gravity observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36,L18401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

GPS World

C. Dunn, W. Bertiger, Y. Bar-Sever, S. Desai, B. Haines, D. Kuang, G. Franklin, I. Harris, G. Kruizinga, T. Meehan, S. Nandi, D. Nguyen, T. Rogstad, J. B. Thomas, J. Tien, L. Romans, M. Watkins, S. C. Wu, S. Bettadpur, J. Kim, “Instrument of GRACE: GPS augments gravity measurements,” GPS World 14, 16–28 (2003).

J. Geodesy

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, W. M. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J. Geodesy 86, 1083–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

G. Heinzel, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, K. Strain, W. Winkler, J. Mizuno, K. Danzmann, “Automatic beam alignment in the Garching 30-m prototype of a laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Opt. Commun. 160, 321–334 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. van den Broeke, J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna, B. Wouters, “Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss,” Science 326, 984–986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, J. C. Ries, P. F. Thompson, M. M. Watkins, “GRACE measurements of mass variability in the earth system,” Science 305, 503–505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Geophys.

R. Schmidt, F. Flechtner, U. Meyer, K. H. Neumayer, Ch. Dahle, R. Koenig, J. Kusche, “Hydrological signals observed by the GRACE satellites,” Surv. Geophys. 29, 319–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. D. Tapley, S. Bettadpur, M. Cheng, D. Hudson, G. Kruizinga, “Early results from the gravity recovery and climate experiment,” in Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, J. D. Lafontaine, J. DeLafontaine, J. Treder, M. T. Soyka, J. A. Sims, eds. (Astrodynamics, 2003), 1899–1911.

R. L. Ward, Australian National University Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia R. Fleddermann, M. Elliot, S. Francis, C. Mow-Lowry, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, K. Danzmann, G. Heinzel, D. Schütze, B. S. Sheard, B. Klipstein, D. E. McClelland, D. A. Shaddock, “The design and construction of a prototype lateral-transfer retroreflector for inter-satellite laser ranging,” Class. Quant. Grav. (submitted).

R. Fleddermann, Australian National University, Barry Dr, Acton ACT 0200, Australia, R. L. Ward, M. Elliot, D. Wuchenich, F. Gilles, M. Herding, K. Nicklaus, J. Brown, J. Burke, S. Dligatch, D. Farrant, K. Green, J. Seckold, M. Blundell, R. Brister, C. Smith, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, B. Klipstein, D. E. Mc-Clelland, D. A. Shaddock, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Testing the GRACE FO Triple Mirror Assembly.”

D. Schütze, D. Farrant, D. A. Shaddock, B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, “Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (accepted for publication).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of Laser Ranging Interferometer (LRI) on GRACE Follow-On spacecraft (S/C). The LRI is identical on both spacecraft. The Triple Mirror Assembly (TMA) routes the beam around the cold gas tank and the microwave ranging system. On the LRI optical bench, local laser beam and received beam are interfered on a quadrant photo diode, where both relative phase and relative beam tilt are measured using Differential Wavefront Sensing (DWS, [1214]). The phase contains the ranging information δL between the satellites. By zeroing the DWS singal, the steering mirror keeps incoming and local beams coaligned such that the outgoing beam that is retroreflected by the TMA is sent back to the distant satellite. If the TMA vertex (more precisely: Point of Minimal rotation-to-pathlength Coupling (PMC)) is misplaced by Δx, Δy, Δz with respect to the S/C center-of-mass (CM), then S/C rotations θ couple into the length measurement δL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triple Mirror Assembly (TMA) prototype developed by a consortium led by the Centre for Gravitational Physics, Australian National University (ANU). Three mirrors (M1 right, M2, M3 left) are mounted perpendicular with respect to each other on a rigid ceramic bar. The upper picture shows the TMA front view, the lower picture a tilted view from the mirror M2, M3 subassembly (left) to mirror M3 (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup to position the BMR in the TMA PMC by minimizing differential interferometric rotation-to-pathlength measurements. TMA: Triple Mirror Assembly, BMR: Ball-Mounted Retroreflector, PD-TMA, PD-BMR: Photo diodes (ac-coupled) for heterodyne interferometric measurements, PD-REF: Photo diode for heterodyne interferometric reference measurement, QPD-TMA, QPD-BMR: Quadrant photo diodes (dc-coupled) for beamwalk measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential interferometric displacement measurement of TMA and BMR. Hexapod rotates in roll, pitch, yaw by 2 mrad and translates in x, y, z by 2 mm for x and 200 μm for y, z. For better statistics, 10 identical steps are performed in each degree of freedom. Dashed line: There is an observable coupling for pitch of ≈100 nm/2 mrad which corresponds to a TMA PMC and BMR position difference of 50 μm along the z-axis. Solid line: After translating the BMR by 50 μm along the z-axis, the differential interferometric measurement of TMA and BMR for pitch and yaw is below the noise level of about 20 nm corresponding to a BMR and TMA PMC difference of 10 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 TMA and BMR vertices as determined from CMM measurements of the TMA mirror planes and the BMR sphere in CMM coordinates. The BMR beam coalignment with respect to the CMM x-axis is also given. From the CMM measurement of the TMA mirrors, the dihedral angle deviations from π/2 between the mirrors M1, M2, M3 were calculated. The whole measurement procedure was repeated two times (“1st run”, “2nd run”).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ L = Δ z θ pitch Δ y θ yaw .
δ L = ( PMC z BMR z ) θ pitch ( PMC y BMR y ) θ yaw .
Δ V CMM y , z = Δ TMA y , z + Δ BMR y , z ± σ y , z .
σ 2 = ( Δ PMC ) 2 + ( Δ PMC x ϕ CS ) 2 + ( Δ V BMR ) 2 + ( Δ V BMR CMM ) 2 + ( Δ V TMA CMM ) 2 .

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