Abstract

We report on the Q-switched laser operation by the evanescent-field interaction with the graphene layers deposited on a Nd:YAG surface planar waveguide, which was fabricated by the 15 MeV carbon ion irradiation. Based on the simple and compact design of the cavity with saturable-absorber features, the Q-switched pulsed waveguide laser operation was achieved at the wavelength of 1064 nm through the interaction between the graphene layer and the evanescent-field of the waveguide mode. The maximum output pulse repetition rate was ~29 kHz with the pulse duration of ~9.8 µs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  28. Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2014

2013

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, H. Yu, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, “Tri-wavelength laser generation based on neodymium doped disordered crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22263–22268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D. I. Yeom, Sh. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, “Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5090–5093 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Charlet, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, “1 kW peak power passively Q-switched Nd3+-doped glass integrated waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1987–1989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

H. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, M. Jiang, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, “Passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser with a GaAs wafer,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 225–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2003

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

Akhmadaliev, S.

Akhmadaliev, Sh.

Andrés, M. V.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aravazhi, Sh.

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bastard, L.

B. Charlet, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, “1 kW peak power passively Q-switched Nd3+-doped glass integrated waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1987–1989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beecher, S. J.

Benayas, A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Broquin, J. E.

Broquin, J.-E.

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G.

Buchvarov, I.

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cha, S. J.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, B.

Chen, F.

Y. Yao, Y. Jia, F. Chen, Sh. Akhmadaliev, Sh. Zhou, “Channel waveguide lasers at 1064 nm in Nd:YAG crystal produced by C⁵⁺ ion irradiation with shadow masking,” Appl. Opt. 53(2), 195–199 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, H. Yu, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, “Tri-wavelength laser generation based on neodymium doped disordered crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22263–22268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, “Continuous wave ridge waveguide lasers in femtosecond laser micromachined ion irradiated Nd:YAG single crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 657–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, Y. Jia, N. Dong, L. Pang, Z. Wang, Q. Lu, F. Chen, “Guided-wave second harmonics in Nd:YCOB optical waveguides for integrated green lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 244–246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D. I. Yeom, Sh. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, “Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5090–5093 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuchumishev, D.

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cruz, J. L.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dascalu, T.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N.

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Escalante-Zarate, L.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Gao, W. L.

Gaydardzhiev, A.

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grosa, G.

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Imaeda, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jeong, E.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Jiang, M.

Jipa, F.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Kim, J. W.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kolpakov, S. A.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

Lidorikis, E.

Lu, Q.

Luo, H.

Lv, P.

Ma, J.

Mary, R.

Meilán, P. F.

Mendez, C.

Mezentsev, V. K.

Milana, S.

Nilsson, J.

Ohara, S.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Ozygus, B.

Pang, L.

Parisi, D.

Pavel, N.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Pollnau, M.

Popa, D.

Qian, L. J.

Ren, Y.

Richardson, D. J.

Rodenas, A.

Roso, L.

Rotermund, F.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D. I. Yeom, Sh. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, “Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5090–5093 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamu, G.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salas-Montiel, R.

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[CrossRef]

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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental scheme for the indirect interaction graphene Q-switched waveguide laser generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The G (a) and the 2D (b) bands of the Raman spectrum of the graphene on the surface of Nd:YAG waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional microscope image of the planar waveguide in Nd:YAG crystal; (b) the reconstructed refractive index distribution of the planar waveguide; the (c) calculated and (d) measured modal profiles of the waveguide laser at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The dashed lines indicate the position of the graphene layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The laser oscillation spectra of the graphene Q-switched waveguide laser (a) and the modal profile of the output laser (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The power of the output laser as a function of the incident pumping power with (blue doted line) and without (red doted line) Graphene; (b) the variation ratio of the output laser power as a function of time; (c) the variation of the pulse duration and the repetition rate of the graphene Q-switched pulse waveguide laser as a function of the input pumping power.

Equations (2)

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E=hν N 0 SL
ΔR 3.52 T R τ p

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