Abstract

We report on the Q-switched laser operation by the evanescent-field interaction with the graphene layers deposited on a Nd:YAG surface planar waveguide, which was fabricated by the 15 MeV carbon ion irradiation. Based on the simple and compact design of the cavity with saturable-absorber features, the Q-switched pulsed waveguide laser operation was achieved at the wavelength of 1064 nm through the interaction between the graphene layer and the evanescent-field of the waveguide mode. The maximum output pulse repetition rate was ~29 kHz with the pulse duration of ~9.8 µs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  28. Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2014

2013

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, H. Yu, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, “Tri-wavelength laser generation based on neodymium doped disordered crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22263–22268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D. I. Yeom, Sh. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, “Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5090–5093 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Charlet, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, “1 kW peak power passively Q-switched Nd3+-doped glass integrated waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1987–1989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

H. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, M. Jiang, D. Tang, G. Xie, H. Luo, “Passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser with a GaAs wafer,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 225–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2003

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

Akhmadaliev, S.

Akhmadaliev, Sh.

Andrés, M. V.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aravazhi, Sh.

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bastard, L.

B. Charlet, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, “1 kW peak power passively Q-switched Nd3+-doped glass integrated waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1987–1989 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beecher, S. J.

Benayas, A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Broquin, J. E.

Broquin, J.-E.

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G.

Buchvarov, I.

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cha, S. J.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, B.

Chen, F.

F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, Y. Jia, F. Chen, Sh. Akhmadaliev, Sh. Zhou, “Channel waveguide lasers at 1064 nm in Nd:YAG crystal produced by C⁵⁺ ion irradiation with shadow masking,” Appl. Opt. 53(2), 195–199 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, H. Yu, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, “Tri-wavelength laser generation based on neodymium doped disordered crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22263–22268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, Y. Jia, N. Dong, L. Pang, Z. Wang, Q. Lu, F. Chen, “Guided-wave second harmonics in Nd:YCOB optical waveguides for integrated green lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 244–246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, “Continuous wave ridge waveguide lasers in femtosecond laser micromachined ion irradiated Nd:YAG single crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 657–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D. I. Yeom, Sh. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, “Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5090–5093 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuchumishev, D.

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cruz, J. L.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dascalu, T.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N.

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Escalante-Zarate, L.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Gao, W. L.

Gaydardzhiev, A.

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grosa, G.

R. Salas-Montiel, L. Bastard, G. Grosa, J.-E. Broquin, “Hybrid Nd-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149(2), 181–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Imaeda, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jeong, E.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Jiang, M.

Jipa, F.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Kim, J. W.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kolpakov, S. A.

Y. O. Barmenkov, S. A. Kolpakov, A. V. Kir’yanov, L. Escalante-Zarate, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, “Influence of Cavity Loss Upon Performance of Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(10), 977–980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

Lidorikis, E.

Lu, Q.

Luo, H.

Lv, P.

Ma, J.

Mary, R.

Meilán, P. F.

Mendez, C.

Mezentsev, V. K.

Milana, S.

Nilsson, J.

Ohara, S.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Ozygus, B.

Pang, L.

Parisi, D.

Pavel, N.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Pollnau, M.

Popa, D.

Qian, L. J.

Ren, Y.

Richardson, D. J.

Rodenas, A.

Roso, L.

Rotermund, F.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, E. Jeong, S. J. Cha, F. Rotermund, D. Yeom, “Ultrafast Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using a Waveguide-Type Saturable Absorber Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052705 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, D. I. Yeom, Sh. Aravazhi, M. Pollnau, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, “Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5090–5093 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamu, G.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandu, G. Salamu, N. Pavel, T. Dascalu, D. Chuchumishev, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, “High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers,” Quantum Electron. 42(3), 211–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salas-Montiel, R.

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[CrossRef]

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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, “High power blue generation from a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 ridge-type waveguide by frequency-doubling of a diode end-pumped Nd:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3659–3661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental scheme for the indirect interaction graphene Q-switched waveguide laser generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The G (a) and the 2D (b) bands of the Raman spectrum of the graphene on the surface of Nd:YAG waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional microscope image of the planar waveguide in Nd:YAG crystal; (b) the reconstructed refractive index distribution of the planar waveguide; the (c) calculated and (d) measured modal profiles of the waveguide laser at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The dashed lines indicate the position of the graphene layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The laser oscillation spectra of the graphene Q-switched waveguide laser (a) and the modal profile of the output laser (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The power of the output laser as a function of the incident pumping power with (blue doted line) and without (red doted line) Graphene; (b) the variation ratio of the output laser power as a function of time; (c) the variation of the pulse duration and the repetition rate of the graphene Q-switched pulse waveguide laser as a function of the input pumping power.

Equations (2)

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E=hν N 0 SL
ΔR 3.52 T R τ p

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