Abstract

We demonstrate the use of intensity-modulated laser diodes to implement pump-probe microscopy and achieved sub-diffraction resolution imaging with shot-noise limited sensitivity with a scheme of balanced detection. This technique has several applications for various types of induced transmission change, including excited-state absorption, ground state absorption bleaching and stimulated emission. By using our technique, biological imaging of mouse T cells and the axons of neurons in the cerebral cortex was demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. S. Chong, W. Min, X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: Detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Dellwig, P. Y. Lin, F. J. Kao, “Long-distance fluorescence lifetime imaging using stimulated emission,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 011009 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Y. Dong, C. Buehler, P. T. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Implementation of intensity-modulated laser diodes in time-resolved, pump-probe fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40(7), 1109–1115 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Ye, D. Fu, W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear absorption microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(3), 631–645 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Wei, W. Min, “Pump-probe optical microscopy for imaging nonfluorescent chromophores,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(8), 2197–2202 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Lakowicz, Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Vol 5: Nonlinear and Two-Photon Induced Fluorescence (Springer, 1997), Vol. 5.
  19. A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

L. Wei, W. Min, “Pump-probe optical microscopy for imaging nonfluorescent chromophores,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(8), 2197–2202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dellwig, P. Y. Lin, F. J. Kao, “Long-distance fluorescence lifetime imaging using stimulated emission,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 011009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. S. Chong, W. Min, X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: Detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ye, D. Fu, W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear absorption microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(3), 631–645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adachi, M.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, R.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Avramescu, A.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berciaud, S.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, D. E.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bruederl, G.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, C.

Celebrano, M.

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

Chen, T.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, S. S.

S. S. Chong, W. Min, X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: Detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cognet, L.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dellwig, T.

T. Dellwig, P. Y. Lin, F. J. Kao, “Long-distance fluorescence lifetime imaging using stimulated emission,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 011009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolash, B. D.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

C. Y. Dong, C. Buehler, P. T. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Implementation of intensity-modulated laser diodes in time-resolved, pump-probe fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40(7), 1109–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichler, C.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Enya, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fei, P.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, T.

C. Y. Dong, C. Buehler, P. T. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Implementation of intensity-modulated laser diodes in time-resolved, pump-probe fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40(7), 1109–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

T. Ye, D. Fu, W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear absorption microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(3), 631–645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisaki, S.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuutagawa, N.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gaiduk, A.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glass, K. E.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

C. Y. Dong, C. Buehler, P. T. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Implementation of intensity-modulated laser diodes in time-resolved, pump-probe fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40(7), 1109–1115 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grichnik, J.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hibara, A.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, L.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, F. J.

T. Dellwig, P. Y. Lin, F. J. Kao, “Long-distance fluorescence lifetime imaging using stimulated emission,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 011009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, J.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, K.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitamori, T.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kukura, P.

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumano, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kyono, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lasne, D.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lermer, T.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. Y.

T. Dellwig, P. Y. Lin, F. J. Kao, “Long-distance fluorescence lifetime imaging using stimulated emission,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 011009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutgen, S.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, T. E.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

L. Wei, W. Min, “Pump-probe optical microscopy for imaging nonfluorescent chromophores,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(8), 2197–2202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Chong, W. Min, X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: Detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, J.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piletic, I. R.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quan, J.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quan, J. M.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renn, A.

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruijgrok, P. V.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabathil, M.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saga, N.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Selim, M. A.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, J. D.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

So, P. T. C.

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strauss, U.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Streets, A. M.

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumitomo, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sumiyoshi, K.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tasai, K.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tokuyama, S.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuji, S.

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, M.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ye, D. Fu, W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear absorption microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(3), 631–645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, L.

L. Wei, W. Min, “Pump-probe optical microscopy for imaging nonfluorescent chromophores,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(8), 2197–2202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilby, P. R.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. W.

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

S. S. Chong, W. Min, X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: Detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yanashima, K.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.

T. Ye, D. Fu, W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear absorption microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(3), 631–645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yorulmaz, M.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizumi, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yurtserver, G.

Yurtsever, G.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

L. Wei, W. Min, “Pump-probe optical microscopy for imaging nonfluorescent chromophores,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403(8), 2197–2202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “True Green Laser Diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW Continuous Wave Output Power onc-Plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-Power (over 100 mW) Green Laser Diodes on Semipolar {2021} GaN Substrates Operating at Wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasai, R. Akimoto, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, S. Fujisaki, S. Tanaka, S. Tsuji, “Green-to-yellow continuous-wave operation of BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, T. French, E. Gratton, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by asynchronous pump-probe microscopy,” Biophys. J. 69(6), 2234–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Phys Chem Lett

M. J. Simpson, K. E. Glass, J. W. Wilson, P. R. Wilby, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe microscopic imaging of Jurassic-aged eumelanin,” J Phys Chem Lett 4(11), 1924–1927 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dellwig, P. Y. Lin, F. J. Kao, “Long-distance fluorescence lifetime imaging using stimulated emission,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 011009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Optical Absorption at Room Temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3323–3327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Chong, W. Min, X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: Detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. M. Quan, Y. Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, F. Lu, A. M. Streets, P. Fei, J. Quan, Y. Huang, “Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy,” Nanoscale 5(11), 4701–4705 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

T. Ye, D. Fu, W. S. Warren, “Nonlinear absorption microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 85(3), 631–645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Transl. Med.

T. E. Matthews, I. R. Piletic, M. A. Selim, M. J. Simpson, W. S. Warren, “Pump-probe imaging differentiates melanoma from melanocytic nevi,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(71), 71ra15 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. R. Lakowicz, Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Vol 5: Nonlinear and Two-Photon Induced Fluorescence (Springer, 1997), Vol. 5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of pump-probe microscopy using intensity modulated continuous wave laser. The probe and pump beam intensities are modulated at ω1 and ω2. A beat signal at |ω1ω2| is generated by the bilinear interactions at sample position and detected using a lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of pump-probe microscopy using laser diodes. LD: laser diode, DPSS: diode pumped solid state laser, EOM: electro optical modulator, SF: spatial filter, DM: dichroic mirror, BS: beam splitter, ND: neutral density filter, PBS: polarization beam splitter, OBL: objective lens. CL: condenser lens, F: band pass filter, PMT: photomultiplier tube, MMF: multimode fiber. Either the 660 nm LD or the 532 nm DPSS was used as a probe light source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evaluation of noise level, signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio (a). Noise level of the lock-in signal as a function of laser beam power incident on the detector. Circles and squares denote, respectively, lock-in signals that do or do not involve a balanced detection scheme. Solid and broken lines are the shot-noise level and circuit noise level, respectively. The modulation frequency of the beams was 3.0 MHz and the lock-in frequency was set at 100 kHz. (b). Lock-in signal (circles) and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) (squares) as a function of probe beam power at the sample position. The pump beam power was set at 20 μW. The modulation frequency of the probe and pump beams were 3.0 and 3.1 MHz, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evaluation of spatial resolution in pump-probe microscopy. (a), (b) pump-probe image of 20 nm gold nanoparticles dispersed on a glass slide. (c) Intensity profiles of the single nanoparticle in the vertical and horizontal direction. The average power of the probe and pump beam was 115 and 222 μW, respectively. The modulation frequency of the pump and probe beams were 5.0 and 5.1 MHz, respectively. The time constant of the lock-in amplifier was 2 ms and the pixel dwell time was 6 ms. Global fitting of a single nanoparticle using the Gaussian results in full-width at half maximum of 138 nm and 142 nm in the vertical and transversal direction, respectively. Assuming the size of the nanoparticles to be 20 nm, deconvolution of the intensity profiles gives FWHMs of 136 nm and 140 nm for the effective PSF. (d), (e) Stimulated emission induced fluorescence intensity reduction (SEIFIR) image and conventional fluorescence intensity image of 1 μm fluorescence beads. The excitation and emission stimulation beams were focused by an objective lens with NA = 0.95. The average power of the excitation and emission stimulation beam was 23 μW and 1.1 mW, respectively. (f) Intensity profiles along the broken lines in (d) (red) and (e) (black).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b). Stimulated emission images of a mouse T cell labelled with quantum dots with and without the scheme of the balanced detection. We used 488 nm LD for the pump and 660 nm LD for the probe. The average powers of the probe and pump beam were 210 and 1 mW, respectively. The modulation frequency of the pump and probe beams were 3 and 3.1 MHz, respectively. The time constant of the lock-in amplifier was 5 ms and the pixel dwell time was 8 ms. (c). Intensity profiles along the broken lines in (a) (red) and (b) (black). (d) Stimulated emission image of neuron-expressing yellow fluorescent proteins. The average powers of the probe and pump beam were 130 μW and 970 μW, respectively. The scale bars in (a), (b) and (d) indicate 2 μm.

Metrics