Abstract

The knowledge of the X-ray wavefront is of importance for many experiments at synchrotron sources and hard X-ray free-electron lasers. We will report on metrology measurements performed at the SACLA X-ray Free Electron Laser by means of grating interferometry which allows for an at-wavelength, in-situ, and single-shot characterization of the X-ray wavefront. At SACLA the grating interferometry technique was used for the study of the X-ray optics installed upstream of the end station, two off-set mirror systems and a double crystal monochromator. The excellent quality of the optical components was confirmed by the experimental results. Consequently grating interferometry presents the ability to support further technical progresses in X-ray mirror manufacturing and mounting.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19, 16550–16559 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Modregger, B. R. Pinzer, T. Thüring, S. Rutishauser, C. David, M. Stampanoni, “Sensitivity of X-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 19, 18324–18338 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

N. Loh, D. Starodub, L. Lomb, C. Hampton, A. Martin, R. Sierra, A. Barty, A. Aquila, J. Schulz, J. Steinbrener, R. Shoeman, S. Kassemeyer, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, S. Epp, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, B. Rudek, L. Foucar, N. Kimmel, G. Weidenspointner, G. Hauser, P. Holl, E. Pedersoli, M. Liang, M. Hunter, L. Gumprecht, N. Coppola, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, F. Maia, T. Ekeberg, M. Hantke, H. Fleckenstein, H. Hirsemann, K. Nass, T. White, H. Tobias, G. Farquar, W. Benner, S. Hau-Riege, C. Reich, A. Hartmann, H. Soltau, S. Marchesini, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, P. Bucksbaum, M. Frank, I. Schlichting, H. Chapman, M. Bogan, “Sensing the wavefront of X-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres,” Opt. Express 21, 12385–12394 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, Y. Kayser, C. David, A. T. Macrander, “Heat bump on a monochromator crystal measured with X-ray grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20, 300–305 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, T. Koyama, H. Yumoto, K. Miyokawa, T. Ohsawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, “Beamline mirrors and monochromator for X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 710, 139–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Katayama, K. Ogawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, S. Takahashi, K. Takeshita, H. Tomizawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, M Yabashi, “Beamline, experimental stations and photon beam diagnostics for the hard X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” New J. Phys. 15, 083035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

M. Kato, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Saito, M. Richter, A. A. Sorokin, K. Tiedtke, T. Kudo, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy measurement at the hard X-ray laser in Japan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 023503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, I Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, “Design aspects of X-ray grating interferometry,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference 1466, 84–89 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. Lee, U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard X-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 24977–24986 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David, “At-wavelength characterization of refractive X-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Modregger, B. R. Pinzer, T. Thüring, S. Rutishauser, C. David, M. Stampanoni, “Sensitivity of X-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 19, 18324–18338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19, 16550–16559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for X-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, C. David, “Two-Dimensional X-ray grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

U. Flechsig, A. Jaggi, S. Spielmann, H. Padmore, A. MacDowell, “The optics beamline at the Swiss light source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 609, 281–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, B. Nöhammer, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, E. Ziegler, C. David, “Moiré interferometry formulas for hard X-ray wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 140–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, Yoshio Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H.H. Solak, E. Ziegler, “Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. David, D. Hambach, “Line width control using a defocused low voltage electron beam,” Microelectron. Eng. 46, 219–222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, H.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

Arnold, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arthur, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asaka, T.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Asano, Y.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Azumi, N.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

Barthelmess, M.

Barty, A.

Bauer, G.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, J.

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bednarzik, M.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Benner, W.

Berujon, S.

Bionta, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bizen, T.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, M.

Börner, M.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bostedt, C.

N. Loh, D. Starodub, L. Lomb, C. Hampton, A. Martin, R. Sierra, A. Barty, A. Aquila, J. Schulz, J. Steinbrener, R. Shoeman, S. Kassemeyer, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, S. Epp, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, B. Rudek, L. Foucar, N. Kimmel, G. Weidenspointner, G. Hauser, P. Holl, E. Pedersoli, M. Liang, M. Hunter, L. Gumprecht, N. Coppola, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, F. Maia, T. Ekeberg, M. Hantke, H. Fleckenstein, H. Hirsemann, K. Nass, T. White, H. Tobias, G. Farquar, W. Benner, S. Hau-Riege, C. Reich, A. Hartmann, H. Soltau, S. Marchesini, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, P. Bucksbaum, M. Frank, I. Schlichting, H. Chapman, M. Bogan, “Sensing the wavefront of X-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres,” Opt. Express 21, 12385–12394 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, J.

N. Loh, D. Starodub, L. Lomb, C. Hampton, A. Martin, R. Sierra, A. Barty, A. Aquila, J. Schulz, J. Steinbrener, R. Shoeman, S. Kassemeyer, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, S. Epp, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, B. Rudek, L. Foucar, N. Kimmel, G. Weidenspointner, G. Hauser, P. Holl, E. Pedersoli, M. Liang, M. Hunter, L. Gumprecht, N. Coppola, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, F. Maia, T. Ekeberg, M. Hantke, H. Fleckenstein, H. Hirsemann, K. Nass, T. White, H. Tobias, G. Farquar, W. Benner, S. Hau-Riege, C. Reich, A. Hartmann, H. Soltau, S. Marchesini, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, P. Bucksbaum, M. Frank, I. Schlichting, H. Chapman, M. Bogan, “Sensing the wavefront of X-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres,” Opt. Express 21, 12385–12394 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brachmann, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bruder, J.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P.

N. Loh, D. Starodub, L. Lomb, C. Hampton, A. Martin, R. Sierra, A. Barty, A. Aquila, J. Schulz, J. Steinbrener, R. Shoeman, S. Kassemeyer, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, S. Epp, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, B. Rudek, L. Foucar, N. Kimmel, G. Weidenspointner, G. Hauser, P. Holl, E. Pedersoli, M. Liang, M. Hunter, L. Gumprecht, N. Coppola, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, F. Maia, T. Ekeberg, M. Hantke, H. Fleckenstein, H. Hirsemann, K. Nass, T. White, H. Tobias, G. Farquar, W. Benner, S. Hau-Riege, C. Reich, A. Hartmann, H. Soltau, S. Marchesini, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, P. Bucksbaum, M. Frank, I. Schlichting, H. Chapman, M. Bogan, “Sensing the wavefront of X-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres,” Opt. Express 21, 12385–12394 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cammarata, M.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chabior, M.

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

Cloetens, P.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coffee, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, N.

David, C.

S. Rutishauser, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, Y. Kayser, C. David, A. T. Macrander, “Heat bump on a monochromator crystal measured with X-ray grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20, 300–305 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, I Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, “Design aspects of X-ray grating interferometry,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference 1466, 84–89 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David, “At-wavelength characterization of refractive X-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Modregger, B. R. Pinzer, T. Thüring, S. Rutishauser, C. David, M. Stampanoni, “Sensitivity of X-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 19, 18324–18338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, C. David, “Two-Dimensional X-ray grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, B. Nöhammer, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, E. Ziegler, C. David, “Moiré interferometry formulas for hard X-ray wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 140–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H.H. Solak, E. Ziegler, “Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. David, D. Hambach, “Line width control using a defocused low voltage electron beam,” Microelectron. Eng. 46, 219–222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Decker, F.-J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
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T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, B. Nöhammer, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, E. Ziegler, C. David, “Moiré interferometry formulas for hard X-ray wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 140–144 (2004).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
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Popescu, S.

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
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S. Rutishauser, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, Y. Kayser, C. David, A. T. Macrander, “Heat bump on a monochromator crystal measured with X-ray grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20, 300–305 (2013).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
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Reznikova, E.

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
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M. Kato, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Saito, M. Richter, A. A. Sorokin, K. Tiedtke, T. Kudo, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy measurement at the hard X-ray laser in Japan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 023503 (2012).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
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C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
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Rudek, B.

Rudenko, A.

Rutishauser, S.

S. Rutishauser, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, Y. Kayser, C. David, A. T. Macrander, “Heat bump on a monochromator crystal measured with X-ray grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20, 300–305 (2013).
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S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
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S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
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S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David, “At-wavelength characterization of refractive X-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
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P. Modregger, B. R. Pinzer, T. Thüring, S. Rutishauser, C. David, M. Stampanoni, “Sensitivity of X-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 19, 18324–18338 (2011).
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H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19, 16550–16559 (2011).
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I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, C. David, “Two-Dimensional X-ray grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
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S. Rutishauser, “X-ray grating interferometry for imaging and metrology,” Ph.D. Thesis (2013).

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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
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M. Kato, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Saito, M. Richter, A. A. Sorokin, K. Tiedtke, T. Kudo, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy measurement at the hard X-ray laser in Japan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 023503 (2012).
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T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
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H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, T. Koyama, H. Yumoto, K. Miyokawa, T. Ohsawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, “Beamline mirrors and monochromator for X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 710, 139–142 (2013).
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T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
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Sawada, K.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
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Sawhney, K.

Schlichting, I.

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. Lee, U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard X-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. Lee, U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard X-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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Schultz, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

Schulze, C.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
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T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
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D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. Lee, U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard X-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
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T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Senba, Y.

H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, T. Koyama, H. Yumoto, K. Miyokawa, T. Ohsawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, “Beamline mirrors and monochromator for X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 710, 139–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shintake, T.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shirasawa, K.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shoeman, R.

Sierra, R.

Sinn, H.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
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Smith, T.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
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C. David, B. Nöhammer, H.H. Solak, E. Ziegler, “Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
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Soltau, H.

Sorokin, A. A.

M. Kato, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Saito, M. Richter, A. A. Sorokin, K. Tiedtke, T. Kudo, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy measurement at the hard X-ray laser in Japan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 023503 (2012).
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U. Flechsig, A. Jaggi, S. Spielmann, H. Padmore, A. MacDowell, “The optics beamline at the Swiss light source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 609, 281–285 (2009).
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Stampanoni, M.

P. Modregger, B. R. Pinzer, T. Thüring, S. Rutishauser, C. David, M. Stampanoni, “Sensitivity of X-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 19, 18324–18338 (2011).
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T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
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K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for X-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uhlén, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. Lee, U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard X-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

van der Veen, J. F.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vartanyants, I.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, A. Schropp, J. Patommel, R. Hoppe, F. Seiboth, V. Meier, C. G. Schroer, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, H. Lee, U. Vogt, “Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard X-ray free-electron laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5046–5048 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Weidenspointner, G.

Weitkamp, T.

S. Rutishauser, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, Y. Kayser, C. David, A. T. Macrander, “Heat bump on a monochromator crystal measured with X-ray grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20, 300–305 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, I Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, “Design aspects of X-ray grating interferometry,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference 1466, 84–89 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David, “At-wavelength characterization of refractive X-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
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I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, C. David, “Two-Dimensional X-ray grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, B. Nöhammer, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, E. Ziegler, C. David, “Moiré interferometry formulas for hard X-ray wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 140–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welch, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

White, W.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wunderer, C.

Yabashi, M

K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Katayama, K. Ogawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, S. Takahashi, K. Takeshita, H. Tomizawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, M Yabashi, “Beamline, experimental stations and photon beam diagnostics for the hard X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” New J. Phys. 15, 083035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yabashi, M.

H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, T. Koyama, H. Yumoto, K. Miyokawa, T. Ohsawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, “Beamline mirrors and monochromator for X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 710, 139–142 (2013).
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S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 24977–24986 (2012).
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T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kato, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Saito, M. Richter, A. A. Sorokin, K. Tiedtke, T. Kudo, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy measurement at the hard X-ray laser in Japan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 023503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for X-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaga, M.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, A.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

Yanagida, K.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yashiro, W.

Yocky, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

Yumoto, H.

H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, T. Koyama, H. Yumoto, K. Miyokawa, T. Ohsawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, “Beamline mirrors and monochromator for X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 710, 139–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zanette, I

T. Weitkamp, I Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, “Design aspects of X-ray grating interferometry,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference 1466, 84–89 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zanette, I.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David, “At-wavelength characterization of refractive X-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, C. David, “Two-Dimensional X-ray grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zastrau, U.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19, 16550–16559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, B. Nöhammer, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, E. Ziegler, C. David, “Moiré interferometry formulas for hard X-ray wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 140–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H.H. Solak, E. Ziegler, “Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H.H. Solak, E. Ziegler, “Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 054101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, C. David, “At-wavelength characterization of refractive X-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kato, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Saito, M. Richter, A. A. Sorokin, K. Tiedtke, T. Kudo, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy measurement at the hard X-ray laser in Japan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 023503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Donath, M. Chabior, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, E. Hempel, S. Popescu, M. Hoheisel, M. Schuster, J. Baumann, C. David, “Inverse geometry for grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, Y. Kayser, C. David, A. T. Macrander, “Heat bump on a monochromator crystal measured with X-ray grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20, 300–305 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, Yoshio Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microelectro. Eng.

S. Rutishauser, M. Bednarzik, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, M. Börner, J. Mohr, C. David, “Fabrication of two-dimensional hard X-ray diffraction gratings,” Microelectro. Eng. 101, 12–16 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. David, D. Hambach, “Line width control using a defocused low voltage electron beam,” Microelectron. Eng. 46, 219–222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

S. Rutishauser, L. Samoylova, J. Krzywinski, O. Bunk, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, C. David, “Exploring the wavefront of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Nat. Commun. 3, 947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nature Photon. 4, 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marchal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free electron laser emitting in the sub-angstrom region,” Nature Photon. 6, 540–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Katayama, K. Ogawa, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, S. Takahashi, K. Takeshita, H. Tomizawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, M Yabashi, “Beamline, experimental stations and photon beam diagnostics for the hard X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” New J. Phys. 15, 083035 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A

H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, T. Koyama, H. Yumoto, K. Miyokawa, T. Ohsawa, S. Goto, T. Ishikawa, “Beamline mirrors and monochromator for X-ray free electron laser of SACLA,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 710, 139–142 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Flechsig, A. Jaggi, S. Spielmann, H. Padmore, A. MacDowell, “The optics beamline at the Swiss light source,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 609, 281–285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19, 16550–16559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Modregger, B. R. Pinzer, T. Thüring, S. Rutishauser, C. David, M. Stampanoni, “Sensitivity of X-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 19, 18324–18338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Loh, D. Starodub, L. Lomb, C. Hampton, A. Martin, R. Sierra, A. Barty, A. Aquila, J. Schulz, J. Steinbrener, R. Shoeman, S. Kassemeyer, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, S. Epp, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, B. Rudek, L. Foucar, N. Kimmel, G. Weidenspointner, G. Hauser, P. Holl, E. Pedersoli, M. Liang, M. Hunter, L. Gumprecht, N. Coppola, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, F. Maia, T. Ekeberg, M. Hantke, H. Fleckenstein, H. Hirsemann, K. Nass, T. White, H. Tobias, G. Farquar, W. Benner, S. Hau-Riege, C. Reich, A. Hartmann, H. Soltau, S. Marchesini, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, P. Bucksbaum, M. Frank, I. Schlichting, H. Chapman, M. Bogan, “Sensing the wavefront of X-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres,” Opt. Express 21, 12385–12394 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 12, 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, H. Yokoyama, R. Fukui, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, W. Yashiro, A. Momose, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Wavefront measurement for a hard-X-ray nanobeam using single-grating interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 24977–24986 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, C. David, “Two-Dimensional X-ray grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, I.K. Robinson, “Quantitative measurement of the coherence function of a hard x-ray beam using a grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, B. Nöhammer, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, E. Ziegler, C. David, “Moiré interferometry formulas for hard X-ray wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 140–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the AIP Conference

T. Weitkamp, I Zanette, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, “Design aspects of X-ray grating interferometry,” in Proceedings of the AIP Conference 1466, 84–89 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. Tono, T. Kudo, M. Yabashi, T. Tachibana, Y. Feng, D. Fritz, J. Hastings, T. Ishikawa, “Single-shot beam-position monitor for X-ray free electron laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused X-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Rutishauser, “X-ray grating interferometry for imaging and metrology,” Ph.D. Thesis (2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the grating interferometer setup used at the SACLA facility. The XFEL pulses generated in the undulator section (not shown) were incident at an angle θ on either two TRM or a Si(111) DCM. The vertical offset after the optical components corresponded to 20mm. The grating interferometer was installed further downstream and consisted of two binary line gratings, a diffraction grating splitting the beam into the ±1st diffraction orders and an absorption grating placed in front of the detector (for details see text). Scanning electron micrographs of both gratings are shown on the bottom left, respectively middle panel. The grating structure periods were 4 μm and 2 μm, respectively, while the required structure height was defined by the energy of the incident X-ray photons (for details see text). To realize the measurements in the moiré mode both gratings were tilted symmetrically around the beam axis with respect to the camera system while their separation distance d corresponded to the 11th fractional Talbot order. A single-shot moiré pattern for horizontally aligned gratings, providing a sensitivity in the vertical direction, is shown in the bottom right panel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The fringe frequencies, or equivalently the fringe periods pmx and pmy, in the horizontal and vertical directions were extracted via two-dimensional Fourier analysis for different orientations of the absorption grating around the optical axis (the XFEL pulse axis). In the left panel the fringe period in both directions is defined for a given grating position, the dashed lines indicate the fringe orientation. The fringe inclination angle with respect to the camera reference system can also be deduced. The dependence of the fringe period in both directions on the grating orientation allowed, by means of a minimization procedure (Eq. 8), to calibrate the angular orientation of both gratings with respect to the camera orientation system and to extract the radius of curvature of the wavefront in the direction perpendicular to the grating structures (right panel). In the present illustration this was realized for vertically aligned gratings. The intersection of both curves indicates the presence of a residual moiré fringe at the position where the lines of the absorption grating are parallel to the ones of the diffraction grating. Indeed, the diffraction and the absorption grating were not divergence matched.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

From a single moiré pattern (upper left panel), the fringe phase in each detector column is extracted through a Fourier analysis (upper right panel). Subsequently the wavefront propagation angle can be recalculated (Eq. 9; lower left panel) as well as the equivalent height profile (lower right panel) of the TRM, respectively the DCM. The spherical shape of the wavefront has to be accounted for in the wavefront slope and in the height profile in order to retrieve the aspherical components. More details can be found in the text. In the present example vertically oriented grating lines providing a sensitivity along the horizontal direction, an incident X-ray photon energy of 12.4keV and the TRM II were considered. The fringe visibility was 0.21.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean recorded moiré fringe image for horizontally oriented gratings, aspherical component of the wavefront slope (slope error, S. E.) in the vertical direction and the equivalent aspherical height profile (H. P.) for the TRM I, the TRM II and the DCM at an incident X-ray photon energy of either 7keV or 12.4keV. The displayed field of view for the mean moiré fringe image is 1.5 × 1.1mm2 for the lower X-ray photon energy (7keV) and 1.0 × 0.7mm2 for the larger X-ray photon energy (12.4keV). Because of different beam sizes at the two used X-ray photon energies, the width and the origin of the investigated region of the TRM II are different, explaining the different evolution of the height profile. The thick solid line represents the retrieved result for the mean image of 1000 XFEL shots for the lower X-ray photon energy and 50 XFEL shots (recorded during the grating rotation scan) for the higher X-ray photon energy. The non-solid lines stand for randomly selected single XFEL pulses, allow to visualize shot-to-shot fluctuations and are set off with respect to the result of the mean image, the latter being centered on the origin of the vertical axis.

Equations (15)

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I ( x , y ) = I i ( x , y ) × I g ( x , y ) I m ( x , y ) + I hf ( x , y ) where I i ( x , y ) = 1 2 ( cos [ 2 π p i ( y cos β 1 + x sin β 1 ) ] + 1 ) I g ( x , y ) = 1 2 ( cos [ 2 π p 2 ( y cos β 2 + x sin β 2 ) ] + 1 ) and I m ( x , y ) = cos [ 2 π p i ( y cos β 1 + x sin β 1 ) 2 π p 2 ( y cos β 2 + x sin β 2 ) ]
D n = p 1 2 8 λ n
f m = s N pix p m ,
I m ( x , y ) = cos [ 2 π p 2 ( sin β 2 M 0 M sin β 1 ) x + 2 π p 2 ( cos β 2 M 0 M cos β 1 ) y ] = cos [ 2 π p mx x + 2 π p my y ]
with p mx = p 2 sin β 2 M 0 M sin β 1
and p my = p 2 cos β 2 M 0 M cos β 1
p i = p 1 M 2 p 2 = p 1 2 .
( p 2 p mx + sin β 1 M ) 2 + ( p 2 p my + cos β 1 M ) 2 = 1 .
min M , β 1 i | ( p 2 p m x i + sin β 1 M ) 2 + ( p 2 p m y i + cos β 1 M ) 2 1 | k ,
α j = 1 R j d j = M 1 d d j , with j = x , y .
1 p m j = 1 2 π δ Ψ δ j , with j = x , y .
α x = ( M 0 sin β 1 sin β 2 1 ) x d + p 2 sin β 1 2 π d sin 2 β 2 Ψ ( x , y )
α y = ( M 0 cos β 1 cos β 2 1 ) y d + p 2 cos β 1 2 π d cos 2 β 2 Ψ ( x , y )
α j = λ 2 π δ Φ ( x , y ) δ j , with j = x , y .
h = Φ λ 4 π tan θ

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