Abstract

We report on the development of an innovative class of nanowire-based Terahertz (THz) detectors in which the metamaterial properties of an antenna have been imported in the detection scheme of an overdamped plasma-wave field-effect transistor making its response resonant to THz radiation. Responsivities of ~105 V/W at 0.3THz, with noise equivalent power levels ≈10−10W/√Hz, detectivities ~2·108cm√Hz/W and quantum efficiencies ~1.2·10−5 are reached at room-temperature. The resonant nature of the detection scheme provided by the four-leaf-clover-shaped geometry and the possibility to extend this technology to large multi-pixel arrays opens the path to demanding applications for ultra-sensitive metrology, spectroscopy and biomedicine.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

I. Woo, T. K. Nguyen, H. Han, H. Lim, I. Park, “Four-leaf-clover-shaped antenna for a THz photomixer,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18532–18542 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. M. Hashim, S. Kasai, H. Hasegawa, “Observation of first and third harmonic responses in two-dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices due to plasma wave interaction,” Superlattices Microstruct. 44(6), 754–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nature Phot. 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Wunnicke, “Gate capacitance of back-gated nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 083102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride nanowire nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 101–104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Dyakonov, M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aizin, G. R.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allee, D. R.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Beere, H. E.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C.

Blin, S.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boeuf, F.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolìvar, P. H.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boppel, S.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boubanga, S.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. E.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Coquillat, D.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride nanowire nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 101–104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dey, A. W.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride nanowire nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 101–104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonov, M.

M. Dyakonov, M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonova, N.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, G. C.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ercolani, D.

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fröberg, L. E.

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallon, C.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glaab, D.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grillo, V.

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, H.

Haring-Bolivar, P.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

A. M. Hashim, S. Kasai, H. Hasegawa, “Observation of first and third harmonic responses in two-dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices due to plasma wave interaction,” Superlattices Microstruct. 44(6), 754–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hashim, A. M.

A. M. Hashim, S. Kasai, H. Hasegawa, “Observation of first and third harmonic responses in two-dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices due to plasma wave interaction,” Superlattices Microstruct. 44(6), 754–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. C.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride nanowire nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 101–104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, S.

A. M. Hashim, S. Kasai, H. Hasegawa, “Observation of first and third harmonic responses in two-dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices due to plasma wave interaction,” Superlattices Microstruct. 44(6), 754–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kunnen, G. R.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. H.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, A.

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride nanowire nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 101–104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

Lind, E.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lisauskas, A.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lombardo, A.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lusakowski, J.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matukas, J.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maude, D.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maude, D. K.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, Y.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, Y. M.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikalopas, J.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minkevicius, L.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. K.

Öjefors, E.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

Palenskis, V.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.

Patimisco, P.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pea, M.

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellegrini, V.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, K. M.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, U.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pitanti, A.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polini, M.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pun, E. Y. B.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Raupp, G. B.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rehnstedt, C.

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Roddaro, S.

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogalsky, A.

A. Rogalsky, F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19(3), 346–404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, L.

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rout, S.

Rumyantsev, S.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salviati, G.

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampaolo, A.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shaner, E. A.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

Shur, M.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
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M. Dyakonov, M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sizov, F.

A. Rogalsky, F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19(3), 346–404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sjoland, H.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skotnicki, T.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sonkusale, S.

Sorba, L.

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spagnolo, V.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, A. C.

Tauk, R.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teppe, F.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thelander, C.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nature Phot. 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valusis, G.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vicarelli, L.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinh, N. Q.

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Viti, L.

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M. S.

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahl, R. E.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wernersson, L. E.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wernersson, L.-E.

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woo, I.

Wunnicke, O.

O. Wunnicke, “Gate capacitance of back-gated nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 083102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yip, S.

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, L. Minkevicius, G. Valusis, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz responsivity and low-frequency noise in biased silicon field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Viti, L. Romeo, D. Ercolani, G. Scalari, J. Faist, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Semiconductor nanowires for highly sensitive, room-temperature detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Wunnicke, “Gate capacitance of back-gated nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 083102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

K. M. Persson, E. Lind, A. W. Dey, C. Thelander, H. Sjoland, L. E. Wernersson, “Low-frequency noise in vertical InAs nanowire FETs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 428–430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Wahl, F. Wang, H. E. Chung, G. R. Kunnen, S. Yip, E. H. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, J. C. Ho, “Stability and low-frequency noise in InAs NW Parallel-Array Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(6), 765–767 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Thelander, L. E. Fröberg, C. Rehnstedt, L. Samuelson, L.-E. Wernersson, “Vertical enhancement-mode InAs nanowire field-effect transistor with 50-nm wrap gate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 206–208 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

M. Dyakonov, M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Y. Huang, X. Duan, Y. Cui, C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride nanowire nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 101–104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett.

L. Viti, M. S. Vitiello, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci, “Se-doping dependence of the transport properties in CBE-grown InAs nanowire field effect transistors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

D. Ercolani, F. Rossi, A. Li, S. Roddaro, V. Grillo, G. Salviati, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, “InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures grown by chemical beam epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 20(50), 505605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, S. Blin, N. Dyakonova, M. Shur, F. Teppe, A. Tredicucci, T. Nagatsuma, “Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Romeo, D. Coquillat, M. Pea, D. Ercolani, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, “Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214005 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phot.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nature Phot. 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opto-Electron. Rev.

A. Rogalsky, F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19(3), 346–404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct.

A. M. Hashim, S. Kasai, H. Hasegawa, “Observation of first and third harmonic responses in two-dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices due to plasma wave interaction,” Superlattices Microstruct. 44(6), 754–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. K. Nguten and I. Park, “Resonant antennas on semi-infinite and lens substrates at terahertz frequency,” in Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems (Springer, 2012), pp. 181–193.

S. Datta, Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems (Cambridge U.P., 1995), Chap. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a four-leaf-clover-shaped antenna. The employed geometrical parameters are: Dx = Dy = 330 μm, Gx = Gy = 44 μm, w = 11 μm; they set the resonant frequency at ≈0.3 THz. (b) Optical image of the detector layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) FEM simulation of the absorption cross-section σabs of the four-leaf-clover-shaped antenna. Inset: scattered electromagnetic power on the plane of the antenna, a maximum of intensity is recognizable in the central zone where the NW FET is placed; (b) SEM image of the lateral-gated NW FET, the S-D distance lSD is 1 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Responsivity Rν (left axis) and current ISD (right axis) plotted as a function of VG; Rν is calculated from the photoresponse Δu at 0.292 THz; ISD is measured at a source-drain bias VSD = 0.025 V. (b) Red line: Rν measured with the tunable source as a function of the incoming frequency (ν) in the 0.265 THz −0.375 THz range while VG is kept at 8 V and the radiation is polarized along the y-axis of the FLCS antenna (θ = 0° or in the direction orthogonal to it (θ = 90°); The estimated FWHM is ~15 GHz, in good agreement with the result predicted by the FEM simulations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) NEP calculated from the ration between the Johnson-Nyquist noise spectral density (N), and the responsivity of Fig. 3(a) plotted as a function of VG. The minimum NEP level is ~120 pW/√Hz. (b) Noise spectral density measured with a dynamic spectrum analyser while the THz radiation, modulated at 530 Hz, was impinging on the device. The noise shows a 1/f dependence at low modulation frequencies: at 530 Hz N ~300 nV/√Hz. For ν > 100 kHz the thermal contribution becomes dominant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image of the 4 mm-diameter optical beam collected with the NW FET while mounting the detector on a X-Y translational stage scanned with a spatial step of 300 µm and 200 µm in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.

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