Abstract

We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, P. D. Raphael, R. Wang, J. Park, A. P. Xia, B. E. Applegate, J. S. Oghalai, “In vivo vibrometry inside the apex of the mouse cochlea using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 230–240 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1158–1163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

T. Sielhorst, M. Feuerstein, N. Navab, “Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality,” J Disp Technol 4(4), 451–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Kim, B. S. Sohn, “Real-time retinal imaging with a parallel optical coherence tomography using a CMOS smart array detector,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1787–1791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Casselman, “Diagnostic imaging in clinical neuro-otology,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15(1), 23–30 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, J. B.

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Boppart, S. A.

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1158–1163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. P.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casselman, J. W.

J. W. Casselman, “Diagnostic imaging in clinical neuro-otology,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15(1), 23–30 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, E. W.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F. Y.

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. T.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, N. H.

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. G.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, N.

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, J. R.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, P. D.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davila, V.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Boer, J. F.

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehlers, J. P.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, A. K.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, M.

T. Sielhorst, M. Feuerstein, N. Navab, “Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality,” J Disp Technol 4(4), 451–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Grundfast, K.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holder, R. C.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, M.

Jeong, H.

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, U.

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1158–1163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1158–1163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W. G.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1158–1163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, B. S. Sohn, “Real-time retinal imaging with a parallel optical coherence tomography using a CMOS smart array detector,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1787–1791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirse, D. J.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobler, J. B.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kwon, H. I.

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lustig, L. R.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maldonado, R.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

McClay, J. E.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minor, L. B.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Navab, N.

T. Sielhorst, M. Feuerstein, N. Navab, “Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality,” J Disp Technol 4(4), 451–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, C. T.

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen-Huynh, A. T.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novak, M.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novak, M. A.

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuttall, A. L.

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oghalai, J. S.

Park, B. H.

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Peters, T. R.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poehling, K. A.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raphael, P. D.

Reid, S. D.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, S. R.

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Röösli, C.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosowski, J. J.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruckenstein, M. J.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, D.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, M.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sielhorst, T.

T. Sielhorst, M. Feuerstein, N. Navab, “Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality,” J Disp Technol 4(4), 451–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B. S.

J. Kim, B. S. Sohn, “Real-time retinal imaging with a parallel optical coherence tomography using a CMOS smart array detector,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1787–1791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C. N.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streubel, S. O.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subhash, H. M.

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swords, W. E.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tandy, R.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K. K.

Toth, C. A.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vezina, G.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Wang, R. K.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K. K.

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, B. J. F.

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, A. P.

Yamaguchi, M.

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalzal, G.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. H.

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.

J. E. McClay, R. Tandy, K. Grundfast, S. G. Choi, G. Vezina, G. Zalzal, A. Willner, “Major and minor temporal bone abnormalities in children with and without congenital sensorineural hearing loss,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128(6), 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

BMC Pediatr.

R. C. Holder, D. J. Kirse, A. K. Evans, T. R. Peters, K. A. Poehling, W. E. Swords, S. D. Reid, “One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens,” BMC Pediatr. 12(1), 87 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Neurol.

J. W. Casselman, “Diagnostic imaging in clinical neuro-otology,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15(1), 23–30 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hear. Res.

E. W. Chang, J. T. Cheng, C. Röösli, J. B. Kobler, J. J. Rosowski, S. H. Yun, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles,” Hear. Res. 304, 49–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Nguyen, S. R. Robinson, W. Jung, M. A. Novak, S. A. Boppart, J. B. Allen, “Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence tomography and acoustic measurements,” Hear. Res. 301, 193–200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ieee J Sel Top Quant

W. G. Jung, J. Zhang, J. R. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, Z. P. Chen, “Advances in oral cancer detection using optical coherence tomography,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 11(4), 811–817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, “Integration of a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System into a Surgical Microscope for Intraoperative Imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(6), 3153–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Disp Technol

T. Sielhorst, M. Feuerstein, N. Navab, “Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality,” J Disp Technol 4(4), 451–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J Opt Soc Korea

N. H. Cho, U. Jung, H. I. Kwon, H. Jeong, J. Kim, “Development of SD-OCT for Imaging the in vivo Human Tympanic Membrane,” J Opt Soc Korea 15(1), 74–77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

H. M. Subhash, V. Davila, H. Sun, A. T. Nguyen-Huynh, A. L. Nuttall, R. K. Wang, “Volumetric in vivo imaging of intracochlear microstructures in mice by high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 036024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. F. Wong, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Z. P. Chen, J. S. Nelson, “Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(4), 367–370 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Subhash, N. Choudhury, F. Y. Chen, R. K. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, A. L. Nuttall, “Depth-resolved dual-beamlet vibrometry based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dermatol. Sci.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

J. Kim, B. S. Sohn, “Real-time retinal imaging with a parallel optical coherence tomography using a CMOS smart array detector,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1787–1791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Otol. Neurotol.

L. B. Minor, J. P. Carey, P. D. Cremer, L. R. Lustig, S. O. Streubel, M. J. Ruckenstein, “Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior canal as a cause of apparent conductive hearing loss,” Otol. Neurotol. 24(2), 270–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otolaryng Head Neck

B. J. F. Wong, Y. H. Zhao, M. Yamaguchi, N. Nassif, Z. P. Chen, J. F. De Boer, “Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 mu m and 1.3 mu m,” Otolaryng Head Neck 130(3), 334–338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. T. Nguyen, W. Jung, J. Kim, E. J. Chaney, M. Novak, C. N. Stewart, S. A. Boppart, “Noninvasive in vivo optical detection of biofilm in the human middle ear,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9529–9534 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Shi, B. C. Becker, and C. N. Riviere, “Inexpensive monocular pico-projector-based augmented reality display for surgical microscope,” in Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS),201225th International Symposium on(IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–6.
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (9)

» Media 1: MOV (3181 KB)     
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic and resolution of the real-time SD-OCT. (a) Schematic diagram of the real-time SD-OCT system. Abbreviations: SLED, superluminescence diode; FC, fiber coupler; PC, polarization controllers; CL, collimator; DC, dispersion compensation unit (prism pair); L, lens; M, mirror; DG, diffraction grating; LSC, line-scanning camera; Sync, synchronization; FG, frame grabber; DAQ, data acquisition board; CPU, central processing unit. (b) Measured point spread function of axial resolution at 50 µm and lateral resolution at 60 µm from zero-depth position, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a real-time intraoperative surgical-microscope OCT probe. Abbreviations: AR, augmented reality; SM, surgical microscope; BP, beam projector; FL, focus lens; M1, M2, mirror; NF, neutral-density filter; BS, beam splitter; CL, collimator; GS1, GS2, galvanometer scanner; OL, objective lens; DM, dichroic mirror. (b) Photograph of the real-time intraoperative surgical microscope OCT probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of an in vivo 2D mouse TM and middle-ear structure: (a) including the TM connected to the upper middle ear, (b) including the ossicles part (malleus and incus) and tympanic cavity of the middle ear, (c) cochlea connected part (incus and stapes) of the lower middle ear, and (d) 2-D movie of the whole middle-ear structures (Media 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of an in vivo 3D mouse TM and middle-ear structure: (a) including the TM connected to the upper middle ear, (b) including the ossicles part (malleus and incus) and the tympanic cavity of the middle ear, (c) cochlea-connected part (incus and stapes) of the lower middle ear, and (d) 3D en-face movie of the whole middle-ear structures (Media 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo whole mouse-ear structural images using OCT combined a surgical microscope. (a) 2-D image of the whole ear structure. (b) 3-D image of the whole ear structure. (c) Using the AR image of the combined OCT and surgical microscope system obtained via the left eyepiece during 3-D imaging for the whole ear structure. The rectangle box represents the scanning area. (d) 3-D movie of the whole ear structure (Media 3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo inner-ear structure images of a mouse using OCT combined with a surgical microscope. (a) Using the AR image of the combined OCT and surgical-microscope images obtained via the left eyepiece during 3-D imaging of tiny structures of the cochlea. The rectangle box represents the scanning area. (b) Histologic image of a cochlear cross section. (c) 2-D image at the apex of the tiny cochlear structures (Media 4). (d) 3-D en-face movie at the apex of the tiny cochlear structures (Media 5). Abbreviations: AB, Apex bone; ST, Scala tympani; OC, Organ of Corti; SV, Scala vestibuli; RM, Reissner’s membrane; CD, Cochlear duct; M, Modiolus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Screenshots of real-time AR using OCT combined with a surgical microscope for the in vivo intraoperative conductive hearing-loss model of a mouse. The line represents the scanning area. (a) Normal TM images of AR using OCT combined with a surgical microscope, 2-D OCT image, and 3-D en-face image (Media 6). (b) Effusion injection of the OM model (Media 7). (c) Suction of the effusion OM model (Media 8). (d) Included perforation of the chronic OM model (Media 9).

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