Abstract

In this study, we propose new fusion technology to overcome the limitations of the current printing process for printed electronics. The combinative slot-die coating and laser direct writing on a roll-to-roll (R2R) basis was studied and applied to the fabrication of piezoresistive strain gauges. Piezoresistive sensors were fabricated for the first time by this developed fusion technology. A parametric study was performed for the R2R process, followed by a comparison of the fabricated functional devices with commercial products, which confirmed a 40% increase in the gauge factor of the fabricated sensors over the commercial product. The combinative manufacturing process for functional device fabrication will open a new chapter in the future of printed electronics due to its large area capacity at low cost.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).
  2. B. G. Higgins, L. E. Scriven, “Capillary pressure and viscous pressure drop set bounds on coating bead operability,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 35(3), 673–682 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. J. Michels, S. H. P. M. de Winter, L. H. G. Symonds, “Process optimization of gravure printed light-emitting polymer layers by a neural network approach,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1495–1504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Angmo, M. Hösel, F. C. Krebs, “All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 329–336 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, T. Miyashita, “Fabrication of conductive silver micropatterns on an organic–inorganic hybrid film by laser direct writing,” Thin Solid Films 517(20), 5935–5939 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. W. Choi, D. F. Farson, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, D. Ashkenasi, “Direct-write patterning of indium-tin-oxide film by high pulse repetition frequency femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5792–5799 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. Yavas, M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Yavas, M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Shin, B. Sim, M. Lee, “Laser-driven high-resolution patterning of indium tin oxide thin film for electronic device,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(7-8), 816–820 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Chae, S. Appasamy, K. Jain, “Patterning of indium tin oxide by projection photoablation and lift-off process for fabrication of flat-panel displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. S. Carvalho, H. S. Kheshgi, “Low-flow limit in slot coating: Theory and experiments,” AIChE J. 46(10), 1907–1917 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

D. Angmo, M. Hösel, F. C. Krebs, “All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 329–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shin, B. Sim, M. Lee, “Laser-driven high-resolution patterning of indium tin oxide thin film for electronic device,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(7-8), 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, T. Miyashita, “Fabrication of conductive silver micropatterns on an organic–inorganic hybrid film by laser direct writing,” Thin Solid Films 517(20), 5935–5939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michels, S. H. P. M. de Winter, L. H. G. Symonds, “Process optimization of gravure printed light-emitting polymer layers by a neural network approach,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, K. Jain, “Patterning of indium tin oxide by projection photoablation and lift-off process for fabrication of flat-panel displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, D. F. Farson, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, D. Ashkenasi, “Direct-write patterning of indium-tin-oxide film by high pulse repetition frequency femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5792–5799 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).

2000

M. S. Carvalho, H. S. Kheshgi, “Low-flow limit in slot coating: Theory and experiments,” AIChE J. 46(10), 1907–1917 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Yavas, M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

O. Yavas, M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1980

B. G. Higgins, L. E. Scriven, “Capillary pressure and viscous pressure drop set bounds on coating bead operability,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 35(3), 673–682 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aminuzzaman, M.

M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, T. Miyashita, “Fabrication of conductive silver micropatterns on an organic–inorganic hybrid film by laser direct writing,” Thin Solid Films 517(20), 5935–5939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angmo, D.

D. Angmo, M. Hösel, F. C. Krebs, “All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 329–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appasamy, S.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, K. Jain, “Patterning of indium tin oxide by projection photoablation and lift-off process for fabrication of flat-panel displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Ashkenasi, D.

Auyeung, R. C. Y.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovatsek, J.

Brikas, M.

G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cárabe, J.

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. S.

O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).

M. S. Carvalho, H. S. Kheshgi, “Low-flow limit in slot coating: Theory and experiments,” AIChE J. 46(10), 1907–1917 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chae, J.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, K. Jain, “Patterning of indium tin oxide by projection photoablation and lift-off process for fabrication of flat-panel displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charipar, N. A.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-F.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-P.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherrington, M.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.

J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. W.

Claypole, T. C.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dam, H. F.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Winter, S. H. P. M.

J. J. Michels, S. H. P. M. de Winter, L. H. G. Symonds, “Process optimization of gravure printed light-emitting polymer layers by a neural network approach,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deganello, D.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Edman, L.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farson, D. F.

Gandía, J. J.

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gedvilas, M.

G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.-P.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B. G.

B. G. Higgins, L. E. Scriven, “Capillary pressure and viscous pressure drop set bounds on coating bead operability,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 35(3), 673–682 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hösel, M.

D. Angmo, M. Hösel, F. C. Krebs, “All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 329–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, W.-T.

M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, K.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, K. Jain, “Patterning of indium tin oxide by projection photoablation and lift-off process for fabrication of flat-panel displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, M.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kheshgi, H. S.

M. S. Carvalho, H. S. Kheshgi, “Low-flow limit in slot coating: Theory and experiments,” AIChE J. 46(10), 1907–1917 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klosner, M.

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Angmo, M. Hösel, F. C. Krebs, “All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 329–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lauzurica, S.

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

H. Shin, B. Sim, M. Lee, “Laser-driven high-resolution patterning of indium tin oxide thin film for electronic device,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(7-8), 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mabbett, I.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michels, J. J.

J. J. Michels, S. H. P. M. de Winter, L. H. G. Symonds, “Process optimization of gravure printed light-emitting polymer layers by a neural network approach,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, T. Miyashita, “Fabrication of conductive silver micropatterns on an organic–inorganic hybrid film by laser direct writing,” Thin Solid Films 517(20), 5935–5939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molpeceres, C.

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ocaña, J. L.

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piqué, A.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raciukaitis, G.

G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raghunandan, S.

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakickas, T.

G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romero, O. J.

O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).

Sandström, A.

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scriven, L. E.

O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).

B. G. Higgins, L. E. Scriven, “Capillary pressure and viscous pressure drop set bounds on coating bead operability,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 35(3), 673–682 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

H. Shin, B. Sim, M. Lee, “Laser-driven high-resolution patterning of indium tin oxide thin film for electronic device,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(7-8), 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sim, B.

H. Shin, B. Sim, M. Lee, “Laser-driven high-resolution patterning of indium tin oxide thin film for electronic device,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(7-8), 816–820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suszynski, W. J.

O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).

Symonds, L. H. G.

J. J. Michels, S. H. P. M. de Winter, L. H. G. Symonds, “Process optimization of gravure printed light-emitting polymer layers by a neural network approach,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takai, M.

O. Yavas, M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Yavas, M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tromholt, T.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbina, L.

C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, A.

M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, T. Miyashita, “Fabrication of conductive silver micropatterns on an organic–inorganic hybrid film by laser direct writing,” Thin Solid Films 517(20), 5935–5939 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, T.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Worsley, D.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
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O. Yavas, M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
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O. Yavas, M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

J. Chang, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, “Controlled growth of large-area high-performance small-molecule organic single-crystalline transistors by slot-die coating using a mixed solvent system,” Adv. Mater. 25(44), 6442–6447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, “Three-dimensional printing of interconnects by laser direct-write of silver nanopastes,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4462–4466 (2010).
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M. S. Carvalho, H. S. Kheshgi, “Low-flow limit in slot coating: Theory and experiments,” AIChE J. 46(10), 1907–1917 (2000).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, K. Jain, “Patterning of indium tin oxide by projection photoablation and lift-off process for fabrication of flat-panel displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
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O. Yavas, M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

G. Račiukaitis, M. Brikas, M. Gedvilas, T. Rakickas, “Patterning of indium–tin oxide on glass with picosecond lasers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6570–6574 (2007).
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Chem. Eng. Sci.

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J. Appl. Phys.

O. Yavas, M. Takai, “Effect of substrate absorption on the efficiency of laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4207–4212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

M. Cherrington, T. C. Claypole, D. Deganello, I. Mabbett, T. Watson, D. Worsley, “Ultrafast near-infrared sintering of a slot-die coated nano-silver conducting ink,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(21), 7562–7564 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocaña, J. J. Gandía, L. Urbina, J. Cárabe, “Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1271–1278 (2005).
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J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech.

O. J. Romero, W. J. Suszynski, L. E. Scriven, M. S. Carvalho, “Low-flow limit in slot coating of dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer,” J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 118, 137–156 (2004).

Nanoscale

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
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Nat Commun

A. Sandström, H. F. Dam, F. C. Krebs, L. Edman, “Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating,” Nat Commun 3, 1002 (2012).
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Opt. Lasers Eng.

H. Shin, B. Sim, M. Lee, “Laser-driven high-resolution patterning of indium tin oxide thin film for electronic device,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(7-8), 816–820 (2010).
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Org. Electron.

J. J. Michels, S. H. P. M. de Winter, L. H. G. Symonds, “Process optimization of gravure printed light-emitting polymer layers by a neural network approach,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1495–1504 (2009).
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F. C. Krebs, “All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps,” Org. Electron. 10(5), 761–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, “Flexible electronics and displays: high-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production,” Proc. IEEE 93(8), 1500–1510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Angmo, M. Hösel, F. C. Krebs, “All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 329–336 (2012).
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Thin Solid Films

M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, T. Miyashita, “Fabrication of conductive silver micropatterns on an organic–inorganic hybrid film by laser direct writing,” Thin Solid Films 517(20), 5935–5939 (2009).
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M.-F. Chen, Y.-P. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, Z.-P. Gu, “Laser direct write patterning technique of indium tin oxide film,” Thin Solid Films 515(24), 8515–8518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overall manufacturing scheme used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sheet resistance of conductive Ag film with respect to NIR lamp power (a) and ink flow rate (b). The inset in (a) shows the image of the Ag film on a PI substrate. The web speed was reduced to 20 mm/s (1.2 m/min) and 30 mm/s (1.8 m/min) on the PET substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscopy images of top view of Ag film (a), cutting using focused ion beam (b), cross-sectional images of Ag film fabricated at web speed of 20 mm/s and ink flow rate of 2 ml/min (c) and at web speed of 30 mm/s and ink flow rate of 7 ml/min (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Silver line patterns fabricated by laser direct writing process: (a) SEM images with pitch of 40 μm, (b) variation in remaining Ag line width as a function of laser pulse energy for pitch of 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characteristics of line patterns using pulsed laser: (a) ablated line fabricated at scan speed of 1,000 mm/s, (b) silver line pattern formation at various pulse energies and scanning speeds.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Silver nanoparticle piezoresistive strain gauge fabricated by combination of R2R slot-die and LDW: (a) CAD design of single strain gauge, (b) cantilever beam test setup, and (c) photograph of strain gauges attached to cantilever.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Performance evaluation of fabricated piezoresistive sensors assuming GF = 2: time response for static load (a) and cyclic load (b), and strain versus static load in strain gauges (c).

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