Abstract

We report ultraviolet electroluminescence from a hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film. ZnO microspheres, which have high crystalline quality, have been synthesized by ablating a ZnO sintered target. It was found that synthesized ZnO microspheres had a high-optical property and exhibit the laser action in the whispering gallery mode under pulsed optical pumping. A hetero p-n junction was formed between the single ZnO microsphere/ p-GaN thin film, and a good rectifying property with a turn-on voltage of approximately 6 V was observed in I-V characteristic across the junction. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence were observed under forward bias.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Yi, C. Wang, W. I. Park, “ZnO nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(4), S22–S34 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Shan, J. Xu, D. Yu, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in single triangular ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2533–2535 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Ghosh, D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/ p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Khan, “Raman spectroscopic study of the ZnO nanostructures,” J. Pak. Mater. Soc. 4, 5–9 (2010).
  20. R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. O. Lupan, T. Pauporté, B. Viana, “Low-voltage UV-electroluminescence from ZnO-nanowire array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3298–3302 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Khan, “Raman spectroscopic study of the ZnO nanostructures,” J. Pak. Mater. Soc. 4, 5–9 (2010).

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lupan, T. Pauporté, B. Viana, “Low-voltage UV-electroluminescence from ZnO-nanowire array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3298–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

X. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Shan, J. Xu, D. Yu, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in single triangular ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2533–2535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Ghosh, D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/ p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Yi, C. Wang, W. I. Park, “ZnO nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(4), S22–S34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alvi, N. H.

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arora, A. K.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bai, L.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bando, Y.

J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Basak, D.

R. Ghosh, D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/ p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bendre, B. S.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L. J.

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czekalla, C.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dev, A.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Shaer, A.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fusazaki, K.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, R.

R. Ghosh, D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/ p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greene, L. E.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Shan, J. Xu, D. Yu, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in single triangular ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2533–2535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R. Q.

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, T. M.

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higashihata, M.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. Q.

J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. Y.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, S.

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, “Raman spectroscopic study of the ZnO nanostructures,” J. Pak. Mater. Soc. 4, 5–9 (2010).

Kim, H. J.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, B.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kishwar, S.

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klason, P.

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koshizaki, N.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, S.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lao, J. Y.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. B.

J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. H.

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lochner, Z.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenz, M.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Shan, J. Xu, D. Yu, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in single triangular ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2533–2535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lupan, O.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporté, B. Viana, “Low-voltage UV-electroluminescence from ZnO-nanowire array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3298–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahamuni, S.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Montano, M.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, D.

T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, J.

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nobis, T.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nur, O.

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, K.

T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

G. C. Yi, C. Wang, W. I. Park, “ZnO nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(4), S22–S34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pauporté, T.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporté, B. Viana, “Low-voltage UV-electroluminescence from ZnO-nanowire array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3298–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, W.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, A.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rajalakshmi, M.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Q.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. F.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richters, J. P.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, S.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryou, J. H.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schade, W.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Grund, R.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, T.

J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shan, X.

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimogaki, T.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimogaki, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, M. Higashihata, T. Asano, T. Okada, “Effect of laser annealing on photoluminescence properties of Phosphorus implanted ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15247–15252 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somorjai, G.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steeves, D.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, C.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D. H.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ul Hasan, K.

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Usman Ali, S. M.

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Vugt, L. K.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viana, B.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporté, B. Viana, “Low-voltage UV-electroluminescence from ZnO-nanowire array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3298–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, T.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waldvogel, S. R.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waltermann, J.

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

G. C. Yi, C. Wang, W. I. Park, “ZnO nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(4), S22–S34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Z.

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willander, M.

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Xu, S.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. C.

G. C. Yi, C. Wang, W. I. Park, “ZnO nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(4), S22–S34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

Yu, K.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, J. H.

J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, Y. B. Li, T. Sekiguchi, “Two-dimensional micrometer-sized single-crystalline ZnO thin nanosheets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4414–4416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. Q.

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zou, G. T.

S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zúñiga-Pérez, J.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, Z. L. Wang, “Ordered Nanowire Array Blue/Near-UV Light Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire-based p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 33–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ghosh, D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/ p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

J. Y. Lao, J. Y. Huang, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, D. Steeves, B. Kimball, W. Porter, “ZnO nanowalls,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 539–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Xu, Z. H. Li, Q. Wang, L. J. Cao, T. M. He, G. T. Zou, “A novel one-step method to synthesize nano/micron-sized ZnO sphere,” J. Alloy. Comp. 465(1-2), 56–60 (2008).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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A. Khan, “Raman spectroscopic study of the ZnO nanostructures,” J. Pak. Mater. Soc. 4, 5–9 (2010).

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L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO Nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chan, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

A. El-Shaer, A. Dev, J. P. Richters, S. R. Waldvogel, J. Waltermann, W. Schade, T. Voss, “Hybrid LEDs based on ZnO-nanowire arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1564–1567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

L. Sun, Z. Chen, Q. Ren, K. Yu, W. Zhou, L. Bai, Z. Q. Zhu, X. Shen, “Polarized photoluminescence study of whispering gallery mode polaritons in ZnO microcavity,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(1), 133–136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scr. Mater. (1)

N. H. Alvi, S. M. Usman Ali, S. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, “Fabrication and comparative optical characterization of n-ZnO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanorods, nanoflowers and nanotubes)/p-GaN white-light-emitting diodes,” Scr. Mater. 64(8), 697–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

S. Kishwar, K. Ul Hasan, N. H. Alvi, P. Klason, O. Nur, M. Willander, “A comparative study of the electrodeposition and the aqueous chemical growth techniques for the utilization of ZnO nanorods on p-GaN for white light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 49(1), 32–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of ZnO microsphere fabricated by laser ablation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CCD image of the single ZnO microsphere on a glass substrate (b) Micro-Raman result from the single ZnO microsphere under excitation at 532 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of microscopic-spectroscopy system (b) RT-PL spectrum of the single ZnO microsphere and CCD image under excitation by the He-Cd laser (λ = 325 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) CCD image of the single ZnO microsphere excited by the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 355 nm), (b) emission spectra at different pump powers, and (c) emission intensities as a function of excitation power density.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the I-V characteristic measurement (b) I-V characteristic of pn junction of the single ZnO microsphere/GaN thin film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) CCD image of the single ZnO microsphere under forward bias of 25 V (b), and EL spectra from hetero p-n junction between the single ZnO microsphere and the p-GaN thin film.

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