Abstract

The generation of full-parallax and 360-degree three-dimensional (3D) images on a table screen is proposed. The proposed system comprises a small array of high-speed projectors and a rotating screen. Because the screen has a lens function, a large number of viewpoints are generated on a circle when the screen rotates. Thus, 360-degree 3D images having horizontal parallax are generated. Because all projectors are located at different heights from the screen, they generate the viewpoints on a circle at different heights. Therefore, plural viewpoints are aligned in the vertical direction to provide vertical parallax. A prototype display system that employs three high-speed color projectors is constructed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, J. Nakamura, “Vertical parallax added teabletop-type 360-degree three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

2012

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, S. Uchida, “Table screen 360-degree three-dimensional display using a small array of high-speed projectors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8848–8861 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Display Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5-6), 586–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2006

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: A novel approach to the display and transmission of 360 degrees-viewable 3D solid images,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12(2), 178–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

W. Matusik, H. Pfister, “3DTV: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992

Benton, S. A.

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Busch, J.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cossairt, O. S.

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dorval, R. K.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1244–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1244–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5-6), 586–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gately, M.

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haino, Y.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. L.

Horry, Y.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: A novel approach to the display and transmission of 360 degrees-viewable 3D solid images,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12(2), 178–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, T.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: A novel approach to the display and transmission of 360 degrees-viewable 3D solid images,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12(2), 178–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, N.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iwasawa, S.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kawakita, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

X. Xia, X. Liu, H. Li, Z. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Peng, W. Shen, “A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11237–11247 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Xia, H. Lu, W. Zheng, “Color three-dimensional display with omnidirectional view based on a light-emitting diode projector,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4490–4495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Xia, X. Liu, H. Li, Z. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Peng, W. Shen, “A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11237–11247 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Xia, H. Lu, W. Zheng, “Color three-dimensional display with omnidirectional view based on a light-emitting diode projector,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4490–4495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

Lucente, M.

Matusik, W.

W. Matusik, H. Pfister, “3DTV: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, K.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, J.

Y. Takaki, J. Nakamura, “Vertical parallax added teabletop-type 360-degree three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Napoli, J.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1244–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, R.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: A novel approach to the display and transmission of 360 degrees-viewable 3D solid images,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12(2), 178–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y.

X. Xia, X. Liu, H. Li, Z. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Peng, W. Shen, “A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11237–11247 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, E.

Pfister, H.

W. Matusik, H. Pfister, “3DTV: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sawalha, L.

Shen, W.

St. Hilaire, P.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, J. Nakamura, “Vertical parallax added teabletop-type 360-degree three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, S. Uchida, “Table screen 360-degree three-dimensional display using a small array of high-speed projectors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8848–8861 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanimoto, M.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5-6), 586–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tehrani, M. P.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5-6), 586–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

Wang, H.

Wang, S.

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X.

Yan, C.

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Xia, H. Lu, W. Zheng, “Color three-dimensional display with omnidirectional view based on a light-emitting diode projector,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4490–4495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeary, M.

Yendo, T.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5-6), 586–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.

Zheng, W.

Zheng, Z.

X. Xia, X. Liu, H. Li, Z. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Peng, W. Shen, “A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11237–11247 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graph.

W. Matusik, H. Pfister, “3DTV: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chin. Opt. Lett.

S. Li, H. Li, Z. Zheng, Y. Peng, S. Wang, X. Liu, “Full-parallax three-dimensional display using new directional diffuser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(8), 081205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dig. Tech. Pap.

X. Xia, J. Wu, C. Yan, X. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, “A New 360-degree Holo-views Display System with Multi-vertical Views,” SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1241–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: A novel approach to the display and transmission of 360 degrees-viewable 3D solid images,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12(2), 178–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Display Technol.

J. Electron. Imaging

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic 3D projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vis. Commun. Image R.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 21(5-6), 586–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, W. S. Chun, “100 million voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, J. Nakamura, “Vertical parallax added teabletop-type 360-degree three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901108 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Liu, X. Xia, H. Li, and Z. Zheng, “Combined-screen-based multi-pitching angle suspended panoramic space 3d display device, ” US Pat. 13/808,569.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 40:1–40:10 (2007).

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 64:1–64:8 (2009).

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” Proc. of the Int. Symposium of 3D and Contents, 7–10 (2010).

G. E. Favalora and O. S. Cossairt, “Theta-parallax-only (TPO) displays,” US Patent 7,364,300.

S. Yoshida, “fVisiOn: glasses-free tabletop 3-D display,” in Proceedings of Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging (Tokyo, 2011), DTuA1.

Y. Sakamoto, S. Maruyama, and I. Fukuda, “Turn type three-dimensional display system using arrayed light emitting diodes,” Proc. of the 9th Int. Display Workshops (IDW’02), 1257–1260 (2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

360-degree 3D displays having a table screen: (a) high-speed projector system, (b) multi-projection system, and (c) hybrid system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Previous 360-degree 3D display having horizontal parallax: (a) system configuration and (b) generation of viewpoints.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed 360-degree 3D display having full parallax: (a) system configuration and (b) generation of viewpoints.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflective rotating screen: (a) structure of screen lens and (b) screen lens with rotation mechanism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Projector array comprising three high-speed color projectors located at different heights.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Arrangement of three projectors: (a) positions and (b) circles in which viewpoints were generated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurements of circles in which viewpoints were generated: circles were drawn in the (a) xy-plane, (b) zx-plane, and (c) yz-plane.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Generated 3D image “plane”: (a) model of 3D scene. Images were captured from (b) position A, (c) position B, (d) position C, (e) position D, (f) position E, and (g) position F.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Generated 3D image “planets”: (a) model of 3D scene. Images were captured from (b) position A, (c) position B, (d) position C, (e) position D, (f) position E, and (g) position F.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Generated 3D image of “space shuttle”: (a) model of 3D scene. Images were captured from (b) position A, (c) position B, (d) position C, (e) position D, (f) position E, and (g) position F.

Equations (1)

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( x+x l p n / l n ) 2 + ( y+y l p n / l n ) 2 = R n 2 .

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