Abstract

This paper proposes a layered metal-dielectric waveguide consisting of a stack of alternating metal and dielectric films which enables an ultracompact mode confinement. The properties of whispering gallery modes supported by disk resonators based on such waveguides are investigated for achieving a large Purcell factor. We show that by stacking three layers of 10 nm thick silver with two layers of 50 nm dielectric layers (of refractive index n) in sequence, the disk radius can be as small as 61 nm ∼λ0/(7n) and the mode volume is only 0.0175(λ0/(2n))3. When operating at 40 K, the cavity’s Q-factor can be ~670; Purcell factor can be as large as 2.3×104, which is more than five times larger than that achievable in a metal-dielectric-metal disk cavity in the same condition. When more dielectric layers with smaller thicknesses are used, even more compact confinement can be achieved. For example, the radius of a cavity consisting of seven dielectric-layer waveguide can be shrunk down to λ0/(13.5n), corresponding to a mode volume of 0.005λ0/(2n))3, and Purcell factor can be enhanced to 7.3×104 at 40 K. The influence of parameters like thicknesses of dielectric and metal films, cavity size, and number of dielectric layers is also comprehensively studied. The proposed waveguide and nanodisk cavity provide an alternative for ultracompact light confinement, and can find applications where a strong light-matter interaction is necessary.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. He, S. He, J. Gao, X. Yang, “Nanoscale metamaterial optical waveguides with ultrahigh refractive indices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2559–2566 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. He, L. Sun, S. He, X. Yang, “Deep subwavelength beam propagation in extremely loss-anisotropic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 450–454 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, “Topological Transitions in Metamaterials,” Science 336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, “Strongly confined gap plasmon modes in graphene sandwiches and graphene-on-silicon,” New J. Phys. 15(6), 063020 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Q. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Du, W. Zhang, M. Qiu, Q. Li, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule based on metal/Si disks,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11037–11047 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. W. Chen, M. D. Thoreson, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin ultra-smooth and low-loss silver films on a germanium wetting layer,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5124–5134 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Y. He, L. Sun, S. He, X. Yang, “Deep subwavelength beam propagation in extremely loss-anisotropic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, “Strongly confined gap plasmon modes in graphene sandwiches and graphene-on-silicon,” New J. Phys. 15(6), 063020 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Du, W. Zhang, M. Qiu, Q. Li, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule based on metal/Si disks,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11037–11047 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lou, D. Dai, L. Thylen, L. Wosinski, “Design and analysis of ultra-compact EO polymer modulators based on hybrid plasmonic microring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20041–20051 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

S.-H. Kwon, “Deep subwavelength plasmonic whispering gallery-mode cavity,” Opt. Express 20, 918–924 (2012).

Y. He, S. He, J. Gao, X. Yang, “Nanoscale metamaterial optical waveguides with ultrahigh refractive indices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2559–2566 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, “Topological Transitions in Metamaterials,” Science 336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, L. Thylén, M. Qiu, “Layered metal-dielectric waveguide: subwavelength guidance, leveraged modulation sensitivity in mode index, and reversed mode ordering,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3818–3824 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin, S. Randhawa, J.-S. Bouillard, J. Renger, R. Quidant, A. V. Zayats, “Optically-programmable nonlinear photonic component for dielectric-loaded plasmonic circuitry,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25222–25229 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

W. Chen, M. D. Thoreson, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin ultra-smooth and low-loss silver films on a germanium wetting layer,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5124–5134 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. T. Miyazaki, Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, O. Painter, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, “Cavity Q, mode volume, and lasing threshold in small diameter AlGaAs microdisks with embedded quantum dots,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1094–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, Y. H. Lee, “High-quality-factor and small-mode-volume hexapole modes in photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4294–4296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borselli, M.

Bouillard, J.-S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Burgos, S. P.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

Chen, W.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, X.

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigenbaum, E.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescato, Y.

Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, “Strongly confined gap plasmon modes in graphene sandwiches and graphene-on-silicon,” New J. Phys. 15(6), 063020 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

García de Abajo, F. J.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, V.

Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, “Strongly confined gap plasmon modes in graphene sandwiches and graphene-on-silicon,” New J. Phys. 15(6), 063020 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

Y. He, L. Sun, S. He, X. Yang, “Deep subwavelength beam propagation in extremely loss-anisotropic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, S. He, J. Gao, X. Yang, “Nanoscale metamaterial optical waveguides with ultrahigh refractive indices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2559–2566 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, L. Sun, S. He, X. Yang, “Deep subwavelength beam propagation in extremely loss-anisotropic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, S. He, J. Gao, X. Yang, “Nanoscale metamaterial optical waveguides with ultrahigh refractive indices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2559–2566 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, S.

Jacob, Z.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, V. M. Menon, “Topological Transitions in Metamaterials,” Science 336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, Y. H. Lee, “High-quality-factor and small-mode-volume hexapole modes in photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(21), 4294–4296 (2003).
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J. Opt. (2)

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075001 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
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D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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New J. Phys. (1)

Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, “Strongly confined gap plasmon modes in graphene sandwiches and graphene-on-silicon,” New J. Phys. 15(6), 063020 (2013).
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