Abstract

High-resolution fluorescence techniques that provide spatial resolution below the diffraction limit are attractive new methods for structural characterization of nanostructured materials. For the first time, we apply the super-resolution technique of Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), to characterize nanoscale structures within polymer blend films. The STORM technique involves temporally separating the fluorescence signals from individual labeled polymers, allowing their positions to be localized with high accuracy, yielding a high-resolution composite image of the material. Here, we describe the application of the technique to demixed blend films of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and find that STORM provides comparable structural characteristics as those determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but with all of the advantages of a far-field optical technique

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
  2. A. Neumann, Y. Kuznetsova, S. R. J. Brueck, “Structured illumination for the extension of imaging interferometric microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(10), 6785–6793 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7873–7892 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Lee, H. D. Kim, K. Kim, Y. Kim, T. R. Hillman, B. Min, Y. Park, “Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22453–22463 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, “Super-resolution microscopy at a glance,” J. Cell Sci. 124(10), 1607–1611 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, “Short-Range Spectroscopy Ruler Based on a Single-Molecule Optical Switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 108101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, “Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. W. Hell, J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Moneron, R. Medda, B. Hein, A. Giske, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, “Fast STED microscopy with continuous wave fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1302–1309 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent Dyes Used in STED microscopy,” http://nanobiophotonics.mpibpc.mpg.de/old/dyes/ (2014).
  18. C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. L. Ross and R. Dixit, Methods in Cell Biology, (Elsevier, 2010), Chap. 26.
  20. S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nat. Methods 6(1), 24–32 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. Huang, S. L. Schwartz, J. M. Byars, K. A. Lidke, “Simultaneous multiple-emitter fitting for single molecule super-resolution imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1377–1393 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. H. Lee, M. Baday, M. Tjioe, P. D. Simonson, R. Zhang, E. Cai, P. R. Selvin, “Using fixed fiduciary markers for stage drift correction,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12177–12183 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Wagner, J. M. Yeomans, “Breakdown of Scale Invariance in the Coarsening of Phase-Separating Binary Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(7), 1429–1432 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, H. D. Kim, K. Kim, Y. Kim, T. R. Hillman, B. Min, Y. Park, “Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22453–22463 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, M. Baday, M. Tjioe, P. D. Simonson, R. Zhang, E. Cai, P. R. Selvin, “Using fixed fiduciary markers for stage drift correction,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12177–12183 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

F. Huang, S. L. Schwartz, J. M. Byars, K. A. Lidke, “Simultaneous multiple-emitter fitting for single molecule super-resolution imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1377–1393 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, “Super-resolution microscopy at a glance,” J. Cell Sci. 124(10), 1607–1611 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

G. Moneron, R. Medda, B. Hein, A. Giske, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, “Fast STED microscopy with continuous wave fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1302–1309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nat. Methods 6(1), 24–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7873–7892 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Neumann, Y. Kuznetsova, S. R. J. Brueck, “Structured illumination for the extension of imaging interferometric microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(10), 6785–6793 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, “Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, “Short-Range Spectroscopy Ruler Based on a Single-Molecule Optical Switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 108101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Wagner, J. M. Yeomans, “Breakdown of Scale Invariance in the Coarsening of Phase-Separating Binary Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(7), 1429–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Alexandrov, S. A.

Arhab, S.

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baday, M.

Bates, M.

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, “Short-Range Spectroscopy Ruler Based on a Single-Molecule Optical Switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 108101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belkebir, K.

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blosser, T. R.

M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, “Short-Range Spectroscopy Ruler Based on a Single-Molecule Optical Switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 108101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bock, H.

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böltau, M.

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bossi, M.

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Byars, J. M.

Cai, E.

Chaumet, P. C.

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dempsey, G. T.

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, J. F.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggeling, C.

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egner, A.

C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fölling, J.

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontaine, L.

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, E. F.

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galbraith, C. G.

C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, “Super-resolution microscopy at a glance,” J. Cell Sci. 124(10), 1607–1611 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galbraith, J. A.

C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, “Super-resolution microscopy at a glance,” J. Cell Sci. 124(10), 1607–1611 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannini, H.

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girirajan, T. P. K.

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, “Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giske, A.

Gutzler, T.

Han, C. C.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayward, R. C.

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, B.

G. Moneron, R. Medda, B. Hein, A. Giske, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, “Fast STED microscopy with continuous wave fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1302–1309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

G. Moneron, R. Medda, B. Hein, A. Giske, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, “Fast STED microscopy with continuous wave fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1302–1309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nat. Methods 6(1), 24–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henriques, R.

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. T.

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, “Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Ho, H. T.

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. W.

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, F.

Jakobs, S.

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. A.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. D.

Kim, K.

Kim, Y.

Krausch, G.

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsova, Y.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. H.

Lelek, M.

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levere, M. E.

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidke, K. A.

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maire, G.

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, M. D.

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, “Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medda, R.

G. Moneron, R. Medda, B. Hein, A. Giske, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, “Fast STED microscopy with continuous wave fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1302–1309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mhlanga, M. M.

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, B.

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moneron, G.

Montembault, V.

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, A.

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

Pascual, S.

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasband, W. S.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, Y.

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, T. P.

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Schmidt, R.

C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, C. A.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. L.

Selvin, P. R.

Sentenac, A.

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sentenac, D.

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, S.-H.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonson, P. D.

Soriano, G.

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soutif, J. C.

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sung, L.

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talneau, A.

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjioe, M.

Ullal, C. K.

C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valtorta, F.

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaughan, J. C.

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, J.

J. Wagner, J. M. Yeomans, “Breakdown of Scale Invariance in the Coarsening of Phase-Separating Binary Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(7), 1429–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walheim, S.

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

Wichmann, J.

Wurm, C. A.

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeomans, J. M.

J. Wagner, J. M. Yeomans, “Breakdown of Scale Invariance in the Coarsening of Phase-Separating Binary Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(7), 1429–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, “Short-Range Spectroscopy Ruler Based on a Single-Molecule Optical Switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 108101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X. W.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, C.

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

L. Li, X. Shen, S. W. Hong, R. C. Hayward, T. P. Russell, “Fabrication of Co-continuous Nanostructured and Porous Polymer Membranes: Spinodal Decomposition of Homopolymer and Random Copolymer Blends,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(17), 4089–4094 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

S. T. Hess, T. P. K. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, “Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, “Super-resolution microscopy at a glance,” J. Cell Sci. 124(10), 1607–1611 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. (1)

H. T. Ho, M. E. Levere, S. Pascual, V. Montembault, J. C. Soutif, L. Fontaine, “Phosphites as alternative coreagents for the one-pot aminolysis/thiol-ene synthesis of maleimide-functionalized RAFT polymers,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem. 50(8), 1657–1661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, U. Steiner, “Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. K. Ullal, R. Schmidt, S. W. Hell, A. Egner, “Block Copolymer Nanostructures Mapped by Far-Field Optics,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2497–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (7)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 943–945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1027–1036 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nat. Methods 6(1), 24–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, “QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 339–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, “Short-Range Spectroscopy Ruler Based on a Single-Molecule Optical Switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(10), 108101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Arhab, G. Soriano, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, A. Talneau, D. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, K. Belkebir, H. Giovannini, “Nanometric Resolution with Far-Field Optical Profilometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(5), 053902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, Y. Ruan, G. Maire, D. Sentenac, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, A. Sentenac, “Full-polarized Tomographic Diffraction Microscopy Achieves a Resolution about One-Fourth of the Wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243904 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sung, A. Karim, J. F. Douglas, C. C. Han, “Dimensional crossover in the phase separation kinetics of thin polymer blend films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(23), 4368–4371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wagner, J. M. Yeomans, “Breakdown of Scale Invariance in the Coarsening of Phase-Separating Binary Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(7), 1429–1432 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, “Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. W. Hell, “Fluorescent Dyes Used in STED microscopy,” http://nanobiophotonics.mpibpc.mpg.de/old/dyes/ (2014).

J. L. Ross and R. Dixit, Methods in Cell Biology, (Elsevier, 2010), Chap. 26.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3595 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization of PS/PMMA blend films using four different techniques. (a) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Variable Angle Fluorescence (VAF), and Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). Images were taken of 280 nm thick samples, except for SEM that was taken of 260 nm thick sample, and are displayed at the same magnification. In the AFM height image, the PMMA-rich domains (bright) are surrounded by the PS-rich phase (dark). In SEM, the PMMA-rich domains were extracted by selective solvent, and the remaining PS matrix is visualized. Inset shows a high magnification SEM image. In VAF and STORM, the bright spots result from fluorophores in the PMMA-rich domains. VAF and STORM images were taken on the same sample in the same region (Media 1). (b) Line scans through AFM and STORM images are taken from dashed lines across the images. The line profiles show the distribution of domains through the samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The drift correction procedure using an aggregate fiduciary marker. (a) A single fiduciary marker drifts an appreciable amount over the experiment. The crossed, dashed lines, and yellow arrow indicate the location of the particle at frame 2000 with respect to images taken at frames 2000, 4000, and 6000. (Each frame was 100 ms). (b) The x-y drift is characterized and fit using a non-linear function, quadratic for this sample. Individual image frames were translated according to the fit equation. (c) Two domains within a single region are compared with and without drift correction. All images were taken from a 50 nm thick sample. Scale bars indicate 400 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of glycerol-based imaging buffer. (a) The fluorophore lifetime was determined by fitting the normalized fluorescence intensity, proportional to the number of fluorophores, over time to a double exponential decay function (solid line, R2 = 0.8874). A single exponential function (dotted line) did not accurately fit the data as well (R2 = 0.7946). (b) The parameters of the exponential functional fit are plotted as a function of OSS concentration. The fluorophore lifetimes, τ1 and τ2, clearly increase with increasing OSS concentration, indicating that OSS is a limiting component.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Method for fitting PMMA domains in the reconstructed STORM images. (a) Low magnification image of multiple domains in a 280 nm sample. (b) A single domain at higher magnification shows the identified “long axis” (green line) and corresponding perpendicular “short axis” (yellow line). The dashed, red circle represents a circular domain with diameter equal to the long-axis. (c) Line profiles along the long axis and short axes were fit using Eq. (2). The fits of a single domain show one of the most extreme cases on the 280 nm sample thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Domain size distribution. (a) Sample regions of AFM and STORM images for different sample thicknesses: (i) 50 nm, (ii) 150 nm, and (iii) 280 nm thick samples. All scale bars are 400 nm. (b) The distribution of domain sizes for STORM and AFM analysis, as a function of sample thickness. The STORM data show increasing domain size distribution consistent with AFM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lateral domain size and domain density comparison to AFM results. (a) Comparing the long-axis lengths obtained by STORM to AFM shows equivalent behavior and quantitative agreement. The best fit is a line with slope of 0.9 ± 0.2 and intercept of 75 ± 15 nm (R2 = 0.9996). (b) The domain densities, as a function of sample thickness, are compared for different techniques, and it is apparent that STORM undercounts the number of domains compared to SEM or AFM, which agree.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I 1 e 1 τ 1 + I 2 e 1 τ 2 + I f
I= I max [ 1 1+ ( x L ) α 1 1+ ( x R ) α ]

Metrics