Abstract

A monolithic diode laser array with 35 elements is operated as a coherent array through the use of a Self-Fourier cavity. By analyzing the far field interference pattern, the coherence was measured to be 0.57 with all 35 elements operating and was measured to be approximately constant for arrays with greater than 15 elements. These results are in rough agreement with previous analyses which predict a coherence equal to 0.65 for very large arrays of passively coupled laser elements and demonstrate how the use of regenerative feedback benefits the passive phasing of coherent laser arrays. These results demonstrate that it is possible to circumvent previous cold cavity theories that predict poor phasing properties for arrays with greater than ~10 elements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 871–873 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Corcoran, R. H. Rediker, “The dependence of the output of an external-cavity laser on the relative phases of inputs from the five gain elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(11), 1197–1200 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Siegman, “Resonant Modes of linearly coupled multiple fiber laser structures,” [Unpublished Manuscript], Stanford Univ., (2004).
  4. D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Rothenberg, “Passive coherent phasing of fiber laser arrays,” Fiber Lasers V: Technology, Systems, and Applications, Proc. of SPIE 6873, 687315 (2008).
  6. C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, W. Ray, “Regenerative phase shift and its effect on coherent laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 1043–1048 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).
  9. C. J. Corcoran, F. M. Durville, “Passive phasing in a coherent laser array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 294–300 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Nabors, “Effects of phase errors on coherent emitter arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33(12), 2284–2289 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 275–282 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. V. Vysotsky, N. N. Elkin, A. P. Napartovich, “Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(10), 861–867 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. P. Napartovich, N. N. Elkin, and D. V. Vysotsky, “Influence of non-linear index on coherent passive beam combining of fiber lasers,” Proc. of SPIE, Fiber Lasers VIII: Technology, Systems, and Applications 7914, 791428–1 - 791428–10, (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28941–28946 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of 15 fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” CLEO, CJ-4.5, pp. 792, Munich, May (2013).

2012 (2)

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28941–28946 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, W. Ray, “Regenerative phase shift and its effect on coherent laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 1043–1048 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. V. Vysotsky, N. N. Elkin, A. P. Napartovich, “Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(10), 861–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. J. Corcoran, F. M. Durville, “Passive phasing in a coherent laser array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 294–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 275–282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

C. J. Corcoran, R. H. Rediker, “The dependence of the output of an external-cavity laser on the relative phases of inputs from the five gain elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(11), 1197–1200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 871–873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28941–28946 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisson, J.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, C. J.

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, W. Ray, “Regenerative phase shift and its effect on coherent laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 1043–1048 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. M. Durville, “Passive phasing in a coherent laser array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 294–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 275–282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).

C. J. Corcoran, R. H. Rediker, “The dependence of the output of an external-cavity laser on the relative phases of inputs from the five gain elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(11), 1197–1200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28941–28946 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durville, F.

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, W. Ray, “Regenerative phase shift and its effect on coherent laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 1043–1048 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 275–282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).

Durville, F. M.

C. J. Corcoran, F. M. Durville, “Passive phasing in a coherent laser array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 294–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elkin, N. N.

D. V. Vysotsky, N. N. Elkin, A. P. Napartovich, “Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(10), 861–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 871–873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, J.

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeux, F.

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28941–28946 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kermène, V.

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28941–28946 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kouznetsov, D.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nabors, C. D.

Napartovich, A. P.

D. V. Vysotsky, N. N. Elkin, A. P. Napartovich, “Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(10), 861–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pasch, K. A.

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 275–282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ray, W.

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, W. Ray, “Regenerative phase shift and its effect on coherent laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 1043–1048 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rediker, R. H.

C. J. Corcoran, R. H. Rediker, “The dependence of the output of an external-cavity laser on the relative phases of inputs from the five gain elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(11), 1197–1200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, A.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vysotsky, D. V.

D. V. Vysotsky, N. N. Elkin, A. P. Napartovich, “Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(10), 861–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F.

L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 871–873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, J. Guillot, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of lasers with phase-contrast filtering for enhanced efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).

L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 871–873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, K. A. Pasch, “Coherent array of nonlinear regenerative fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 275–282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran, F. Durville, W. Ray, “Regenerative phase shift and its effect on coherent laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 1043–1048 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. Corcoran, F. M. Durville, “Passive phasing in a coherent laser array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 294–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. J. Corcoran, R. H. Rediker, “The dependence of the output of an external-cavity laser on the relative phases of inputs from the five gain elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(11), 1197–1200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, “Limits of coherent addition of lasers: simple estimate,” Opt. Rev. 12(6), 445–447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

D. V. Vysotsky, N. N. Elkin, A. P. Napartovich, “Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(10), 861–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. P. Napartovich, N. N. Elkin, and D. V. Vysotsky, “Influence of non-linear index on coherent passive beam combining of fiber lasers,” Proc. of SPIE, Fiber Lasers VIII: Technology, Systems, and Applications 7914, 791428–1 - 791428–10, (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, “Passive coherent phasing of fiber laser arrays,” Fiber Lasers V: Technology, Systems, and Applications, Proc. of SPIE 6873, 687315 (2008).

A. E. Siegman, “Resonant Modes of linearly coupled multiple fiber laser structures,” [Unpublished Manuscript], Stanford Univ., (2004).

F. Jeux, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, V. Kermène, A. Barthelemy, “Passive coherent combining of 15 fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering,” CLEO, CJ-4.5, pp. 792, Munich, May (2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coherent diode laser array in self-Fourier cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of diode laser array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far field of incoherent laser diode array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prototype SF cavity with monolithic diode laser array in upper left.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far field interference fringes of coherent laser array with 35 elements. Left - Complete far field. Right - Detail of two fringes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coherence as a function of number of elements in array.

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