Abstract

A reverse-biased voltage is applied to either device in the vertical configuration of two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned and flat Si (110) substrates with weak and strong quantum-confined Stark effects (QCSEs), respectively, in the InGaN/GaN quantum wells for independently controlling the applied voltage across and the injection current into the p-i-n junction in the lateral configuration of LED operation. The results show that more carrier supply is needed in the LED of weaker QCSE to produce a carrier screening effect for balancing the potential tilt in increasing the forward-biased voltage, when compared with the LED of stronger QCSE. The small spectral shift range in increasing injection current in the LED of weaker QCSE is attributed not only to the weaker QCSE, but also to its smaller device resistance such that a given increment of applied voltage leads to a larger increment of injection current. From a viewpoint of practical application in LED operation, by applying a reverse-biased voltage in the vertical configuration, the applied voltage and injection current in the lateral configuration can be independently controlled by adjusting the vertical voltage for keeping the emission spectral peak fixed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alam, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bläsing, J.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Chang, T. W.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. M.

Chen, C. Y.

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, Y. S.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, W. H.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. L.

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cong, G.

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Mierry, P.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Della Sala, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, A.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heuken, M.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Huang, C. F.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, A.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krost, A.

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lahrèche, H.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laügt, M.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, M.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. H.

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. C.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. H.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzini, P.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riblet, P.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. H.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, W. Y.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, P. Y.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, T.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ting, S. Y.

Tottereau, O.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vennéguès, P.

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. K.

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Feltin, B. Beaumont, M. Laügt, P. de Mierry, P. Vennéguès, H. Lahrèche, M. Leroux, P. Gibart, “Stress control in GaN grown on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3230–3232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, Z. H. Liu, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, T. W. Chang, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Strain reduction and crystal improvement of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. S. Chen, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, “Vertical CdZnO/ZnO quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 317–319 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. F. Huang, T. C. Liu, Y. C. Lu, W. Y. Shiao, Y. S. Chen, J. K. Wang, C. F. Lu, C. C. Yang, “Enhanced efficiency and reduced spectral shift of green light-emitting-diode epitaxial structure with prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cong, Y. Lu, W. Peng, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, “Design of the low-temperature AlN interlayer for GaN grown on Si (1 1 1) substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 276(3-4), 381–388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), 382–385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Dadgar, J. Bläsing, A. Diez, A. Alam, M. Heuken, A. Krost, “Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of crack-free GaN on Si (111) exceeding 1 µm in thickness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 11B), L1183–L1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the LED structure of both samples on Si (110) substrate and the operation circuit with the lateral and vertical applied voltages Vb and Vc, respectively. A current meter is connected to the p-contact for measuring the injection current. The buried trenches on Si (110) substrate in sample A are not shown in the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output spectra of samples A and B at 70 mA in injection current with the lateral (curves A-L and B-L) and vertical (curves A-V and B-V) operation configurations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relations between the applied voltage and injection current (I-V curves) when samples A and B are operated in the lateral (curves A-L and B-L) and vertical (curves A-V and B-V) configurations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LED output intensities as functions of injection current when samples A and B are operated in the lateral (curves A-L and B-L) and vertical (curves A-V and B-V) configurations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak energy variations of output spectra with injection current when samples A and B are operated in the lateral (curves A-L and B-L) and vertical (curves A-V and B-V) configurations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variations of PL spectral peak energy with reverse-biased voltage in the lateral operation configuration of samples A and B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Device output intensities as functions of the reverse-biased voltage, Vc, in various cases when Vb levels are fixed at the labeled values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Peak energy variations of the device output spectra with the monitored injection current, Ib, in various cases of fixed Vb values (as labeled). For comparison, the curves A-L and B-L in Fig. 5 are repeated here.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relations between injection current, Ib, and applied voltage, Vb, of samples A and B when the peak energies of output spectra are fixed at 2.6525, 2.6575, and 2.6625 eV.

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