Abstract

Abstract: Presbyopia, the age-related reduction in near vision acuity, is one of the leading issues facing the contact lens industry due to an increasingly ageing population and limitations associated with existing designs. A plastic-based liquid crystal contact lens is described which is designed to allow switchable vision correction. The device is characterized by low operating voltages (<5Vrms) and has curvatures suitable for placement upon the cornea. Imaging and Point Spread Function analysis confirm that the lens provides an increase in optical power of + 2.00 ± 0.25 D when activated, ideal for presbyopia correction.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Mansouri, R. N. Weinreb, “Continuous 24 hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma with a contact lens sensor–time for a paradigm change,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 142, w13545 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  3. J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).
  4. P. B. Morgan, N. Efron, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 32(4), 191–192 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. N. Charman, “Can diffractive liquid crystal lenses aid presbyopes?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13(4), 427–429 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters 24(8), L626–L628 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ye, S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L571–L573 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. W. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Milton, P. Brimicombe, P. Morgan, H. Gleeson, J. Clamp, “Optimization of refractive liquid crystal lenses using an efficient multigrid simulation,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11159–11165 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. D. Lavrentovich, “Defects and textures of liquid crystals,” in Handbook of Liquid Crystals, J. W. Goodby, P. J. Collings, T. Kato, C. Tschierske, H. F. Gleeson, and P. Raynes, eds. (Wiley, Weinheim, 2014), p. 189.
  15. E. Jakeman, and E. P. Raynes, “Electrooptic Response Times in Liquid-Crystals,” Phys Lett A A 39, 69-& (1972).
  16. Y. Mao, W. Bin, S. Sato, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal lens with four liquid crystal layers,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(3), 505–507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

K. Mansouri, R. N. Weinreb, “Continuous 24 hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma with a contact lens sensor–time for a paradigm change,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 142, w13545 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Milton, P. Brimicombe, P. Morgan, H. Gleeson, J. Clamp, “Optimization of refractive liquid crystal lenses using an efficient multigrid simulation,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11159–11165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. B. Morgan, N. Efron, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 32(4), 191–192 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mao, W. Bin, S. Sato, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal lens with four liquid crystal layers,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(3), 505–507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Ye, S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

W. N. Charman, “Can diffractive liquid crystal lenses aid presbyopes?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13(4), 427–429 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters 24(8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Avci, A.

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

Ayräs, P.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beernaert, R.

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

Bin, W.

Y. Mao, W. Bin, S. Sato, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal lens with four liquid crystal layers,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(3), 505–507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brimicombe, P.

Cervino, A.

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, “Can diffractive liquid crystal lenses aid presbyopes?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13(4), 427–429 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clamp, J.

Cuypers, D.

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

De Smet, H.

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

De Smet, J.

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

Efron, N.

P. B. Morgan, N. Efron, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 32(4), 191–192 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrer-Blasco, T.

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D. W.

Garcia-Lazaro, S.

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleeson, H.

Haddock, J. N.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honkanen, S.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippelen, B.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klonner, M.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lingley, A. R.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lipsanen, H.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Llorente-Guillemot, A.

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M. Y.

Love, G. D.

Mansouri, K.

K. Mansouri, R. N. Weinreb, “Continuous 24 hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma with a contact lens sensor–time for a paradigm change,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 142, w13545 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mao, Y.

Y. Mao, W. Bin, S. Sato, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal lens with four liquid crystal layers,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(3), 505–507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, G. R.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milton, H.

Mirjalili, R.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, P.

Morgan, P. B.

P. B. Morgan, N. Efron, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 32(4), 191–192 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumov, A. F.

Otis, B. P.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parviz, B. A.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Cambrodi, R. J.

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H. W.

Sato, R.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters 24(8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Y. Mao, W. Bin, S. Sato, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal lens with four liquid crystal layers,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(3), 505–507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters 24(8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sopanen, M.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, A.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters 24(8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suihkonen, S.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vladimirov, F. L.

Weinreb, R. N.

K. Mansouri, R. N. Weinreb, “Continuous 24 hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma with a contact lens sensor–time for a paradigm change,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 142, w13545 (2012).
[PubMed]

Williby, G.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

Ye, M.

M. Ye, S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. (1)

A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco, R. J. Perez-Cambrodi, A. Cervino, “Visual performance with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses,” Clinical & experimental optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. 95(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Lens Anterior Eye (1)

P. B. Morgan, N. Efron, “Contact lens correction of presbyopia,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 32(4), 191–192 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Display Technology, Journalism (1)

J. De Smet, A. Avci, R. Beernaert, D. Cuypers, H. De Smet, “Design and wrinkling behavior of a contact lens with an integrated liquid crystal light modulator,” Display Technology, Journalism 8, 299–305 (2012).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters (1)

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters 24(8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Ye, S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, “Can diffractive liquid crystal lenses aid presbyopes?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13(4), 427–429 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE (1)

Y. Mao, W. Bin, S. Sato, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal lens with four liquid crystal layers,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(3), 505–507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swiss Med. Wkly. (1)

K. Mansouri, R. N. Weinreb, “Continuous 24 hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma with a contact lens sensor–time for a paradigm change,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 142, w13545 (2012).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Defects and textures of liquid crystals,” in Handbook of Liquid Crystals, J. W. Goodby, P. J. Collings, T. Kato, C. Tschierske, H. F. Gleeson, and P. Raynes, eds. (Wiley, Weinheim, 2014), p. 189.

E. Jakeman, and E. P. Raynes, “Electrooptic Response Times in Liquid-Crystals,” Phys Lett A A 39, 69-& (1972).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) shows a diagram of the design used for the switchable LC lens. The base curve of the lens is designed to fit on the eye, with a radius of curvature of 7.8 mm appropriate for the average human cornea. The optical power of the lower substrate is + 0.50 D, the optical power of the upper substrate is + 6.00 D, with the optical power of the liquid crystal layer varying between −8.50 D and −6.50 D depending on the polarization direction of light or orientation of liquid crystal director. (b) is a photograph of the device while images shown in (c) are CAD renders of the lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b) Polarizing microscopy photographs showing excellent LC alignment in the lens, with incident light polarized at 90° and 45° to the director respectively. (c) shows the light transmission measured with respect to the direction of polarization, with excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements of focal power with respect to applied voltage, measured using a focimeter. No measurement could be made for voltages between 0.8 - 1.3 Vrms due to scattering.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSF measurements of the LC contact lens in both powered and unpowered states. Application of 1.76 Vrms to the LC contact lens brings the laser beam into focus when using an additional + 2.00 D lens. The light intensity for each image set was normalized independently. The region shown is a 40 by 30 pixel area with a pixel size of ~20 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of a light bulb filament with the liquid crystal lens and a + 11.50 D diffraction limited lens. Initially the image is out of focus (a). Upon application of 1.76 Vrms the lens is brought into clear focus after 3.5 ± 0.5 seconds (c) with brief, intense scattering occurring prior to the image formation seen in (b).

Equations (1)

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t on = ηd 2 ( ε 0 Δε V 2 k 11 π 2 ) = ηd 2 ε 0 Δε( V 2 V th 2 ) , 

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