Abstract

An optical fibre chemical sensor that is insensitive to interfering parameters including temperature and surrounding refractive index is described. The sensor is based upon a Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by a pair of identical cascaded long period gratings (LPGs), with the entire device coated with a mesoporous coating of silica nanoparticles. A functional material is infused only into the coating over the section of optical fibre separating the LPGs. The transmission spectrum of the device consists of a channeled spectrum arising from interference of the core and cladding modes within the envelope of the LPG resonance band. Parameters such as temperature, strain and surrounding refractive perturb the entire device, causing the phase of the channeled spectrum and the central wavelength of the envelope shift at the same rate. Exposure of the device to the analyte of interest perturbs only the optical characteristics of the section of fibre into which the functional material was infused, thus influencing only the phase of the channeled spectrum. Measurement of the phase of the channeled spectrum relative to the central wavelength of the envelope allows the monitoring of the concentration of the analyte with no interference from other parameters.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Konstantaki, A. Klini, D. Anglos, S. Pissadakis, “An ethanol vapor detection probe based on a ZnO nanorod coated optical fiber long period grating,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8472–8484 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. C. Cheung, S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Response of fibre optic long period gratings operating near the phase matching turning point to the deposition of nanostructured coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 897–902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Bending sensitivity of in-series long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1624–1626 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. W. James, S. M. Topliss, R. P. Tatam, “Properties of length-apodized phase-shifted long period gratings operating at the phase matching turning point,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(13), 2203–2209 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (4)

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Konstantaki, A. Klini, D. Anglos, S. Pissadakis, “An ethanol vapor detection probe based on a ZnO nanorod coated optical fiber long period grating,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8472–8484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James, S. M. Topliss, R. P. Tatam, “Properties of length-apodized phase-shifted long period gratings operating at the phase matching turning point,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(13), 2203–2209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Korposh, S. W. James, S.-W. Lee, S. M. Topliss, S. C. Cheung, W. J. Batty, R. P. Tatam, “Fiber optic long period grating sensors with a nanoassembled mesoporous film of SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13227–13238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. J. Kim, Y. H. Kim, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on double cladding fiber interferometer assisted by fiber grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1290–1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Cheung, S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Response of fibre optic long period gratings operating near the phase matching turning point to the deposition of nanostructured coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 897–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Anemogiannis, E.

Anglos, D.

Ashwell, G. J.

Batty, W. J.

Bennion, I.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Cheung, S. C.

Davis, F.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Higson, S. J. P.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishaq, I.

James, S. W.

S. W. James, S. M. Topliss, R. P. Tatam, “Properties of length-apodized phase-shifted long period gratings operating at the phase matching turning point,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(13), 2203–2209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, S. W. James, S.-W. Lee, S. M. Topliss, S. C. Cheung, W. J. Batty, R. P. Tatam, “Fiber optic long period grating sensors with a nanoassembled mesoporous film of SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13227–13238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Cheung, S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Response of fibre optic long period gratings operating near the phase matching turning point to the deposition of nanostructured coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 897–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, R. P. Tatam, “Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2197–2199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. J.

M. J. Kim, Y. H. Kim, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on double cladding fiber interferometer assisted by fiber grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1290–1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

M. J. Kim, Y. H. Kim, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on double cladding fiber interferometer assisted by fiber grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1290–1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klini, A.

Konstantaki, M.

Korposh, S.

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, S. W. James, S.-W. Lee, S. M. Topliss, S. C. Cheung, W. J. Batty, R. P. Tatam, “Fiber optic long period grating sensors with a nanoassembled mesoporous film of SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13227–13238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

M. J. Kim, Y. H. Kim, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on double cladding fiber interferometer assisted by fiber grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1290–1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Bending sensitivity of in-series long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1624–1626 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-W.

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, S. W. James, S.-W. Lee, S. M. Topliss, S. C. Cheung, W. J. Batty, R. P. Tatam, “Fiber optic long period grating sensors with a nanoassembled mesoporous film of SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13227–13238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mudhana, G.

M. J. Kim, Y. H. Kim, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on double cladding fiber interferometer assisted by fiber grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1290–1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Pissadakis, S.

Selyanchyn, R.

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

Tatam, R. P.

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, S. M. Topliss, R. P. Tatam, “Properties of length-apodized phase-shifted long period gratings operating at the phase matching turning point,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(13), 2203–2209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, S. W. James, S.-W. Lee, S. M. Topliss, S. C. Cheung, W. J. Batty, R. P. Tatam, “Fiber optic long period grating sensors with a nanoassembled mesoporous film of SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13227–13238 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Cheung, S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Response of fibre optic long period gratings operating near the phase matching turning point to the deposition of nanostructured coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 897–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, R. P. Tatam, “Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2197–2199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Topliss, S. M.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, T.

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yasukochi, W.

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. J. Kim, Y. H. Kim, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on double cladding fiber interferometer assisted by fiber grating pair,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1290–1292 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Korposh, R. Selyanchyn, W. Yasukochi, S.-W. Lee, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating with a nanoporous coating formed from silica nanoparticles for ammonia sensing in water,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2–3), 784–792 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. J. P. Higson, R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, T. Wang, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, “Pronounced aromatic carboxylic acid detection using a layer-by-layer mesoporous coating on optical fibre long period grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 300–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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