Abstract

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) methods are sensitive to phase in addition to attenuation effects and, therefore, can achieve improved image contrast for weakly attenuating materials, such as often encountered in biomedical applications. Several XPCi methods exist, most of which have already been implemented in computed tomographic (CT) modality, thus allowing volumetric imaging. The Edge Illumination (EI) XPCi method had, until now, not been implemented as a CT modality. This article provides indications that quantitative 3D maps of an object’s phase and attenuation can be reconstructed from EI XPCi measurements. Moreover, a theory for the reconstruction of combined phase and attenuation maps is presented. Both reconstruction strategies find applications in tissue characterisation and the identification of faint, weakly attenuating details. Experimental results for wires of known materials and for a biological object validate the theory and confirm the superiority of the phase over conventional, attenuation-based image contrast.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (8)

T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P.C. Diemoz, C.K. Hagen, M. Endrizzi, A. Olivo, “Sensitivity of laboratory based implementations of edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103,244104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R.T. Munro, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, A. Olivo, “A simplified approach to quantitative coded aperture x-ray phase imaging,” Opt. Express 21(9),11187–11201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Herzen, T. Donath, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Padeste, F. Beckmann, A. Schreyer, C. David, “Quantitative phase-contrast tomography of a liquid phantom using a conventional x-ray tube source,” Opt. Express 17(2), 10010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Olivo, R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,074106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

R.E. Guldberg, A.S.P. Lin, R. Coleman, G. Robertson, C. Duvall, “Microcomputed tomography imaging of skeleteral development and growth,” Birth Defects Research C 72, 250–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nature Medicine 2(4),473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Medical Physics 22(4),375–379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Krohn, S. Kuznetsov, I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abrami, A.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Achterhold, K.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam-Neumair, S.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arfelli, F.

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astolfo, A.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Auweter, S.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamberg, F.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, R.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baruchel, J.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, F.

Bergamaschi, A.

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bravin, A.

P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P.C. Diemoz, P. Coan, I. Zanette, A. Bravin, S. Lang, C. Glaser, T. Weitkamp, “A simplified approach for computed tomography with an x-ray grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(3),1691–1698 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bregant, P.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brun, F.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

J. Herzen, T. Donath, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Padeste, F. Beckmann, A. Schreyer, C. David, “Quantitative phase-contrast tomography of a liquid phantom using a conventional x-ray tube source,” Opt. Express 17(2), 10010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cantatore, G.

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casarin, K.

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Castelli, E.

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
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A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
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Chapman, L.

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
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Chen, R.C.

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
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Coan, P.

Coleman, R.

R.E. Guldberg, A.S.P. Lin, R. Coleman, G. Robertson, C. Duvall, “Microcomputed tomography imaging of skeleteral development and growth,” Birth Defects Research C 72, 250–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cova, M.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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Dance, D.

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Davis, J.C.

B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

Diemoz, P.C.

P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
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F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.C. Diemoz, C.K. Hagen, M. Endrizzi, A. Olivo, “Sensitivity of laboratory based implementations of edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103,244104 (2013).
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P.C. Diemoz, P. Coan, I. Zanette, A. Bravin, S. Lang, C. Glaser, T. Weitkamp, “A simplified approach for computed tomography with an x-ray grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(3),1691–1698 (2011).
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Dilmanian, F.

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinapoli, R.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donath, T.

Dreossi, D.

F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
[PubMed]

P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duvall, C.

R.E. Guldberg, A.S.P. Lin, R. Coleman, G. Robertson, C. Duvall, “Microcomputed tomography imaging of skeleteral development and growth,” Birth Defects Research C 72, 250–259 (2004).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
[PubMed]

P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P.C. Diemoz, C.K. Hagen, M. Endrizzi, A. Olivo, “Sensitivity of laboratory based implementations of edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103,244104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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Glaser, C.

Gmur, N.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
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A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
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P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 133–146 (1996).
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Guldberg, R.E.

R.E. Guldberg, A.S.P. Lin, R. Coleman, G. Robertson, C. Duvall, “Microcomputed tomography imaging of skeleteral development and growth,” Birth Defects Research C 72, 250–259 (2004).
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Gullikson, E.M.

B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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Hagen, C.K.

P.C. Diemoz, C.K. Hagen, M. Endrizzi, A. Olivo, “Sensitivity of laboratory based implementations of edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103,244104 (2013).
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T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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P.R.T. Munro, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, A. Olivo, “A simplified approach to quantitative coded aperture x-ray phase imaging,” Opt. Express 21(9),11187–11201 (2013).
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A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
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T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
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J. Herzen, T. Donath, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Padeste, F. Beckmann, A. Schreyer, C. David, “Quantitative phase-contrast tomography of a liquid phantom using a conventional x-ray tube source,” Opt. Express 17(2), 10010 (2009).
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T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
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Hirano, K.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nature Medicine 2(4),473–475 (1996).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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Horrocks, J.A.

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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Hufton, A.

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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Ignatyev, K.

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
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T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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Johnson, B.

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
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Jones, J.L.

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
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Lewis, R.

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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Lin, A.S.P.

R.E. Guldberg, A.S.P. Lin, R. Coleman, G. Robertson, C. Duvall, “Microcomputed tomography imaging of skeleteral development and growth,” Birth Defects Research C 72, 250–259 (2004).
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Longo, R.

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
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A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
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F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menk, R.H.

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
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T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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P.R.T. Munro, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, A. Olivo, “A simplified approach to quantitative coded aperture x-ray phase imaging,” Opt. Express 21(9),11187–11201 (2013).
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P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
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T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
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P.R.T. Munro, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, A. Olivo, “A simplified approach to quantitative coded aperture x-ray phase imaging,” Opt. Express 21(9),11187–11201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
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P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
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A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
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A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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Pani, S.

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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Pisano, E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
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A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
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T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
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F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F.A. Vittoria, P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F.C. Lopez, D. Dreossi, P.R.T. Munro, A. Olivo, “Strategies for efficient and fast wave optics simulation of coded-aperture and other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Appl. Opt. 52(28),6940–6947 (2013).
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P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
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R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
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P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
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Rogers, K.

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
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Sanabor, D.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
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L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
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A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
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Schueller, U.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Krohn, S. Kuznetsov, I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486–5492 (1995).
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Speller, R.

T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
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A. Olivo, R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,074106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Speller, R.D.

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R.T. Munro, L. Rigon, K. Ignatyev, F.C.M. Lopez, D. Dreossi, R.D. Speller, A. Olivo, “A quantitative, non-interferometric x-ray phase contrast imaging technique,” Opt. Express 21(1),647–661 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stampanoni, M.

Stockmar, M.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szafraniec, M.B.

P.R.T. Munro, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, A. Olivo, “A simplified approach to quantitative coded aperture x-ray phase imaging,” Opt. Express 21(9),11187–11201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, T.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nature Medicine 2(4),473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomlinson, W.

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thuering, T.

Tonutti, M.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tromba, G.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valazza, E.

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallazza, E.

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vascotto, A.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vinnicombe, S.J.

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vittoria, F.A.

Wang, Z.

Washburn, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.C. Diemoz, P. Coan, I. Zanette, A. Bravin, S. Lang, C. Glaser, T. Weitkamp, “A simplified approach for computed tomography with an x-ray grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(3),1691–1698 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willner, M.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanconati, F.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zanette, I.

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.C. Diemoz, P. Coan, I. Zanette, A. Bravin, S. Lang, C. Glaser, T. Weitkamp, “A simplified approach for computed tomography with an x-ray grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(3),1691–1698 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zapata, C.E.

P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

AIP Conference Proceedings (1)

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Manchini, R. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of Elettra: clinical mammography and biomedical applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Olivo, R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,074106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P.C. Diemoz, C.K. Hagen, M. Endrizzi, A. Olivo, “Sensitivity of laboratory based implementations of edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103,244104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables (1)

B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Birth Defects Research C (1)

R.E. Guldberg, A.S.P. Lin, R. Coleman, G. Robertson, C. Duvall, “Microcomputed tomography imaging of skeleteral development and growth,” Birth Defects Research C 72, 250–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. Guigay, M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

JINST (1)

F.C. Lopez, L. Rigon, R. Longo, F. Arfelli, A. Bergamaschi, R.C. Chen, D. Dreossi, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation,” JINST 6, C12031 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

A. Olivo, S. Gkoumas, M. Endrizzi, C.K. Hagen, M.B. Szafraniec, P.C. Diemoz, P.R.T. Munro, K. Ignatyev, B. Johnson, J.A. Horrocks, S.J. Vinnicombe, J.L. Jones, R.D. Speller, “Low-dose phase contrast mammography with conventional sources,” Med. Phys. 40(9), 090701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poporat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, E. Vallazza, E. Castelli, “An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field,” Med. Phys. 28(8),1610–1619 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medical Physics (1)

A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Medical Physics 22(4),375–379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Medicine (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nature Medicine 2(4),473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A (2)

L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, A. Bergamaschi, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, B. Schmitt, E. Valazza, E. Castelli, “A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 608(1),S62–S65 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, R. Dinapoli, F. Gozzo, B. Henrich, P. Kraft, B. Patterson, B. Schmitt, “MythenII: a 128 channel single photon counting readout chip,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 607(1),250–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

F. Dilmanian, Z. Zhong, B. Ren, X. Wu, L. Chapman, I. Orion, W. Thomlinson, “Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 933–946 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P.C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C.E. Zapata, Z. Pesic, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. Robinson, A. Olivo, “X-ray phase contrast imaging with nanoradian angular resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,138105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

PLOS ONE (1)

T. Saam, J. Herzen, H. Hetterich, S. Fill, M. Willner, M. Stockmar, K. Achterhold, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, U. Schueller, S. Auweter, S. Adam-Neumair, K. Nikolaou, M. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, F. Bamberg, “Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based x-ray source,” PLOS ONE 8(9),e73513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

T.P. Millard, M. Endrizzi, K. Ignatyev, C.K. Hagen, P.R.T. Munro, R. Speller, A. Olivo, “Method for the automatization of the alignment of a laboratory based x-ray phase contrast edge illumination system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84,083702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Krohn, S. Kuznetsov, I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

The British J. Radiol. (1)

R. Lewis, C. Hall, A. Hufton, S. Evans, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, L. Rigon, G. Tromba, D. Dance, I. Ellis, A. Evans, E. Jacobs, S. Pinder, K. Rogers, “X-ray refraction effects: application to the imaging of biological tissues,” The British J. Radiol. 75, 301–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A.C. Kak, M. Slaney, “Principles of computerized tomographic imaging,” IEEE Press (1988).

Diemoz et al., manuscript submitted.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The working principle of EI XPCi. A laminar beam falls partially on an x-ray absorbing edge and partially on a row of detector pixels. As a consequence, a sensitivity to refraction effects in the y-direction is achieved. The two complementary edge/detector row configurations in (a) and (b) are possible. The rotation of the object enables tomographic imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The curves, in the following denoted by C, show the intensity on the detector (here given as a fraction of the maximum achievable intensity) as a function of the edge position y0 for the edge/detector configurations displayed in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). Positioning the edge at y0 = 0 corresponds to 50% of the maximum achievable intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed maps of the phase and attenuation parameters δ (a) and β (b) for a custom-built wire phantom. The maps correspond to the following wires: 1. nylon 6, 2. PEEK, 3. PBT, 4. sapphire, 5. titanium. The plots underneath show the retrieved parameters plotted against nominal ones for the wires’ materials at 25 keV. The results of a linear regression analysis on the retrieved values is also shown. Moreover, the plots contain δ- and β-values that were retrieved from simulated data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coronal slices extracted from the reconstructed maps of the phase (a) and attenuation (b) parameters for a domestic wasp. The images show only the front half of the insect. Profiles across the thorax are shown below the respective map (c,d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed mixed (a) and linearly combined (b) differential phase and absorption maps for a sub-region of the wire phantom. Profiles across the titanium and nylon 6 wires are extracted from both maps and plotted on the right (c,d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coronal slices extracted from the mixed (a) and linearly combined (b) differential phase and absorption maps for a domestic wasp. Profiles across the insect’s thorax and head were extracted from both maps and plotted underneath (c,d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Volume rendering of the mixed map (phase and attenuation contrast) of a domestic wasp. The contrast has been windowed so as to expose also the internal structure of the insect.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of the materials used in the wire phantom, ordered from lowest to highest absorbing. A ± 10 – 20 % error on the diameter was declared by the supplier and a ± 5% deviation from the nominal density values was assumed to account for potential material impurites and incorrect density measurement, implying an approximate ± 5% uncertainty on the nominal phase and attenuation parameters, which were calculated according to [24].

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( E ) = 1 δ ( E ) + i β ( E ) ,
D ( x , y ) = z o d k Φ ( x , y ) y ,
T ( x , y ) = e μ ( x , y ) ,
Φ ( x , y ) = k 𝒪 δ ( x , y , z ) d z ,
μ ( x , y ) = 2 k 𝒪 β ( x , y , z ) d z .
I ( x , y ) = I 0 T ( x , y ) C ( y 0 + D ( x , y ) ) ,
S phase ( x , y ; θ ) = Φ y ( x , y ; θ ) = k y ( x , y ; θ ; s ) δ ( ξ , η , ζ ) d s
S abs ( x , y ; θ ) = μ ( x , y ; θ ) = 2 k ( x , y ; θ ; s ) β ( ξ , η , ζ ) d s ,
ln ( I ( x , y ) I 0 C ( y 0 ) ) = μ ( x , y ) + ln ( C ( y 0 + z o d k Φ ( x , y ) y ) ) ln ( C ( y 0 ) ) .
ln ( C ( y 0 + z o d k Φ ( x , y ) y ) ) ln ( C ( y 0 ) ) + C ( y 0 ) C ( y 0 ) z o d k Φ ( x , y ) y .
S mixed ( x , y ; θ ) = 1 2 ln ( I ( x , y ; θ ) I 0 C ( y 0 ) ) = ( x , y ; θ ; s ) ( k β ( ξ , η , ζ ) A η δ ( ξ , η , ζ ) ) d s ,
f mixed ( ξ , η , ζ ) = k β ( ξ , η , ζ ) A η δ ( ξ , η , ζ ) ,
CNR = Signal feature Signal background σ background ,

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